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Monday, March 3, 2008

UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION

UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION
Origin-UN charter was signed by 50 members on June 26,1945.It officially came into existence on October 24,1945.
UN Charter-The Charter is the Constitution of the UNO and contains its aims and objectives and rules and regulations for its functioning.
Aims and Objectives: They are security, welfare and human rights.
Headquarters-New York.
Flag-The flag is light blue in colour,and emblazoned in white: in its center is the UN symbol-a polar map of world embraced by twin olive branches open at the top.
Official Languages-The official languages of the UN are:English,French,Chinese,Russian,Arabic and Spanish.However,working languages are English and French only.
Main Organs of the UNO:There are six main organs:
1.General Assembly 2.Security Council 3.Economics and Social Council.
4.Trusteeship Council 5.International Court Of Justice,and 6.Sacretariat.
Present Membership: At present 192 countries are members of the UNO.Montenegro is the latest entrant ti this world organization.
Secretary General of the U.N.O-
1.Trygve lie -Norway(1946-53) 2.Dog Hammarsk-Joled – Sweden(1953-61)
3.U.Thant-Myanmar(1961-71) 4.Kurt Waldheim-Austria(1972-81) 5.Javier Perez de Cuellar-Peru(1982-91)6..Cuellar-Peru(1982-91)
7.Dr.Boutros Ghali-Egypt(1992-96)8.Kofi Annan-Ghanna(1997-2006)
9.Ban Ki-moon-South Korea(2007 till date).
Budget of the U.N.O.-The expenses of the U.N.O.are borne by the following countries in given rations.-
1.America-31.91% 2.Russia-14.92% 3.England-7.21% 4.France-6.9%
5.China-5.75% 6.Canada-3.25% 7.India-1.85% 8.Others-29.02%
Years Observed by United Nations Organization-
1967-International Tourism Year 1970:International Education Year.
1968-Human Rights Year 1972-International Book Year
1973-Copernicus Year 1974-World Population Year.
1975-International Woman’s Year 1979-International Year of the child.
1981-International Year of Disabled 1983-World Communication Year.
1985-International Youth Year 1986-International Year of Peace.
1987-International Year of shelter for the homeless 1990-International Literacy Day. 1992-International Space Year. 1993-International Year for world’s Indigenous People 1994-International Year of Family 1995-International Year of Tolerance.
1996-International Year for Eradication of poverty.
1998-Humah Rights Year 2000-Year of the Culture of Peace.
2001-International Year of Voluhteer 2002-International Year of Ecotourism
2003-International Year of Fresh Water.2004-International Rice Year.
2005-International Year of Sports and Physical Education.
2006-International Year of Deserts and Desertification.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation-SAARC-The first South Asian Summit held in Dhaka(Bangladesh)in December 1985,Culminated in the formation of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.It has eight member States viz. India,Bangladesh,Pakistan,Sri Lanka,Bhutan,Nepal,Maldives and Afghanistan.The charter of SAARC provides annual meetings of the Heads of States and Governments and a six monthly meeting of a Council of Ministers,which is the organisation’s highest policy making body.A permanent Secretariat of the SAARC has been set up at Kathmandu in Nepal.
SAARC Historic Annual Summit-
1st –1985(7-8 Dec.)-Dhaka(Bangladesh) 2nd –1986(16-17 Nov.)-New Delhi(India).
3rd –1987(2-4 Nov.)-Kathmandu(Nepal) 4th –1988(29-31 Dec.)-Islamabad(Pakistan)
5th –1990(22-23 nov.)- Male(Maldives) 6th –1991(21 Dec.)-Colambo(Sri Lanka)
7th –1993(10-11 Apr.)-Dhaka(Bangladesh)8th –1995(3-4 May)-New Delhi(India)
9th –1997(12-14 May)-Male(Maldives) 10th 1999(29-31 July)-Kathmandu(Nepal)
11th 2002(4-6 Jan.)-Colomboo(Sri Lanka) 12th –2004(4-6 Jan)-Islamabad(Pakistan)
13th 2005(12-13 Nov.)-Dhaka(Bangladesh)14th 2007-(3-4 Apr.)-New Delhi(India).
N.B.-The tenth meeting secheduled to be held in Kathmandu in 1999,could not be held.
Famous International Organisations,Headquarters and Year Of Establishment- 1.United Nations Organisation(U.N.O.)-New York-1945.
2.International Monetary Fund(I.M.F.)-Washigton-1945.
3.World Health Organisation(W.H.O.)-Geneva-1948.
4.Food & Agriculture Organisation(F.A.O.)-Rome-1943.
5.International Labour Organisation(I.L.O.)-Geneva-1948.
6.UNESCO-Paris-1946. 7.International Court of Justice-The Huge-
8.Universal Postal Union(UPU)-Beme-1874.
9.International Civil Aviation Organisation(ICAO)-Montreal-1947.
10.UNIDO-Vienna-1967. 11.International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA)-Vienna-1967.
12.International Finance Cooperation(IFC)-Washigton-1956.
13.United Nations Development Programme(UNDP)-New York-
14.UNICEF-New York-1946. 15.Arab League-Tunis-1945. 16.International Maritime Organisation(IMO)-London-1948.
17.World Meterorological Organisation(WMO)-Geneva-1961.
18.International Telecommunication Union(ITU)-Geneva-1947.
19.Common Wealth of Nations-London-1931.
20.World Trade Organigation(WTO)-Geneva-1995.
21.International Development Association(IDA)-Washigton D.C.-1960.
22.International Bank for Reconstruction and Development(IBRD)-WashigtonD.C.-1946.
23.World Intellectual Property Organisation(WIPO)-Geneva-1967.
24.Organisation of Islamic Conference(OIC)-Mecca(Saudi Arabia)-1971.
25.European Economic Community(EEC)-Geneva-1957.
26.Red Cross-Geneva-1863. 27.Interpol-Paris-1923.
28.Asian Development Bank(ADB)-Manila-1966.
29.North Atlantic Treaty Organisation(NATO)-Brussels-1949.
30.Association of South East Asian Nations(ASEAN)_Jakarta-1967.
Other Important Alliances/Bodies of the World.
Commonwealth of Nationas:It is an important international body founded by great Britain in 1931.It is a free Association of 53 sovereign independent States formerely under British rule.Important countries are:U.K.,Canada,Australia,New Zealand,India,Bangladesh and Pakistan.Head quarters:London.
European Union(E.U.):It is the new name of European Economic Community(EEC) or European Common Market(ECM).Now a union of 27 European Nations.Members are:France,Germany,the Netherlands,Belgium,Italy,Luxembourg,Britian,Ireland,Dehmark,Greece,Spain,Portugal,Austria,Finland,Sweden,Cyprus,Czech Republic,Estonia,Hungary,Latvia,Lithuania,Malta,Poland,Slovakia,Slovania,Romania and Bulgaria.It is world’s biggest and richest bloc.
Interpol:Established in 1923,it is the popular name of the International Crimical Police Organisation(ICPO).Its headquarter is in Paris.It has got 176 members countries.
International Red Cross-Two International Organisations are known respectively as International Committee of the Red Cross Societies,both with headquarters in Geneva,Switzerland.The first of these is a wholly International agency unconnected with any national society,and attempts to maintain the basic Red Cross principals of Geneva Convention;the second agency is a federation of autonomous national Red Cross Societies designed to further co-operation among them.
Amnesty International:World wide human right organization.The organization established on 28th May 1961,it won the nobel Prize for Peace on 1977.Headquarters in London.
World Trade Organisation(W.T.O.):The new World Trade Organisation,which replaces the General Areement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT),came into effect from January 1,1995 with the backing of at least 85 founding members,including India.The WTO now comes as the third economic pillar of worldwide dimensions along with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
Non-Aligned movement(NAM)-It is a group of 118 countries mostly developing.The prinicipals of non-alignment were defined in the Bandung(Indonesia).Declaration of 1956 by Jawaharlal Nehru,J.B.Tito and Game Abdil Nasser.The first NAM Conference was held at Belgrade in 1961.The last NAM Conference was held at Havana,Cuba in September,2006.
ASEAN(Association of South East Asian Nation-1967)-Indonesia,Malaysia,Singapore,Thailand,Brunai,Philippines,Vietnam,Combodia,Laos,and Myanmar are its members.Headquarters:Jakarta(Indonesia).
North Allantic Treaty Organisation(NATO)-The treaty was signed at Washigton on April 4,1949,by the Foreign Ministers of Belgium,Canada,Denmark,France,Iceland,Italy,Luxembourg,the Netherlands,Normay,Portugal,UK and USA.Greece,Turkey,German Federal Republic,Spain joined later.Poland,Hungary and Czeth Republic were admitted on March 19,1999.Romania,Bulgaria,Slovakia,Lithuania,Slovenia,Latvia and Estonia joined NATO on April 2,2004.Headquarters:Brussels(Belgium).
IMPORTANT CITIES,PLACES,BUILDINGS OF THE WORLD-
Angkor Vat-It is a large group of old Hindu temples in Cambodia;a remnant of the Khmer civilization.The temples were constructed in the first half of the 12th century.
Big Ben-A clock on the tower of the British Parliament building,installed in 1856.
Bethlehem-A town in Jordan;birth place of Christ;a place of pilgrimage
Cape Canaveral-Situated in Florida(U.S.A.).it is America’s spaceship launching centre.Formerly it was known as Cape Kennedy.
Eiffel Tower:A tower in Paris(985 ft. high);the principal landmark of the coty;designed by a French Engineer for the Paris Exposition 1889.
Fleet Street-A street in London,where offices of newspapers are situated.
Golden Gate Bridge(U.S.A.)-One of the world’s longest suspension bridges,built in 1933-37 across the entrance(Golden Gate)of San Francisco bay in California.It has a length of 9266 ft.
Harappa-Situated near Montgomery(Pakistan) .The famous ruins throw light on 5000-year-old Indus Valley Civilisation.
Hiroshima-A city in Japan;it was the target of the first atom bomb ever dropped on a city (by U.S.A. on August 6,1945):casualities numbered nearly 1,30,000 and ninety percent of the city was leveled.
India Office Library(London)-A museum of Indian historical works,collected by the British.The library consists of about 3,00,000 books,a large number of manuscripts in Sanskrit,Urdu,Perisan and Arabic.
Kabba:The inner shrine of the great Mosque at Mecca in Saudi Arabia.It is the most sacred place.Muslims face the Kabba when praying.
Karakoram Highway-It is a 800km all weather road linking border of China’s Sinkiang province with Pakistan.
Leaning Tower of Pisa:A white marble monument (179feet high)built in the 14th Century in Italy.It is inclined to one side.
Mohenjodro-Situated in the Larkana District of Sind(Pakistan);ancient ruins throw light on 5,000-year-old Indus Valley Civilisation.
Oval,Leeds and Lords(England):Famous for cricket matches.
Panama Canal-Canal connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.The canal is 50 miles long and has 12 locks.It was opened to traffic in August,1914.The canal is administered by the USA.
Penta gon(Washington,USA):IT isa five-sided building housing the US Defence Department offices.
Taipei-101:It is a 101 storeyed structure built in Taipai(Taiwan)having a height of 508 meter.It is now the highest structure of the world replacing the Petronas towers of Malaysia.
Pyraminds:Gigantic stone buildings built by the ancident Egyptians in 2700 B.C,;among the seven wonders of the world.The great pyramids were tombs for the pharaohs and other important people.
Scotland Yard-Headquarters of the criminal Investigation Department ih London.t is known all over world for efficient working.
Andhuste(England):Famous military training institution.
Sphinx:Mythical beast of ancident Egypt;usually represented in art as having a human head and the body of a lion.Thf most famous one is the great Sphinx,a colossal stone figure at Gizah built in the 26th Century BC.
Stonehenge-Prehistoric monument near Salisbury,England built in between 1800 B.C.and 1500 B.C.
Suez Canal-This canal is an important link between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.It is about 160km long and was construted in 1869 by a French Engineer.It has shortened the distance between Southampton(England)and Bombay(Now Mumbai)by about 4,000 miles.The canal was nationalized by Col.Nasser on July 26,1956.Port Said is the famous port at the ehtry from Mediterranean Sea.
Vatican:Official residence of the pope(in Rome).The smallest country.It enjoys a separate entiry in the world.(Area 109 acres).
Wall Street(New York)-Famous stock exchange market.
Civil Aviation-Some famous International Airpots-
1.India-Netajee Subhash Airpot(Kolkata),Meenambakkam Aorpot(Chennai),Chhatrapati Shivajee Airpot(Mumbai),Indira Gandhi International Airpot(Delhi),Thiruvananthapuram Airpot(Kerala),Rajasansi Airpot(Amritsar),Devanahali Airpot(Banglore).
2.France-Charles de Gaulle(Paris).
3.Britain-Heathrow(London).
4.America-J.F.Kennedy Airpot(New York)
5.China-Peking(Beijing).
6.Pakistan-Karachi,Lahore.
7.Canada-Montreal.
8.Denmark-Costupe,Copenhagen Narita and Heneda,Tokyo.
9.Sweden-Stockholm.
10.Singapore-Singapore.
11.Sri Lanka-Colombo.
12.Taiwan-Taipei.
Famous International Air Services-
1.Air India-India. 2.British Overseas-Britain. 3.Japan Airlines –Japan. 4.Airways Corporation Trans World Airlines-America.5.Malaysia Airlines-Malaysia.
6.Pakistan International Airlines-Pakistan. 7.Royal Nepal Airlines-Nepal.
8.Swiss Airways-Switzerland 9.Air France-France. 10.Kuwait Airways-Kuwait.
11.Pan American World Airways-America. 12.K.L.M.Royal Airlines-The Netherlands(Holland) 13.Lufthansa Airlines-Germany. 14.Iraqi Airways-Iraq.
15.National Airlines-Iran. 16.Quantas Airlines-Australia 17.Sewa-Bangladesh.
18.Hong Kong Airlines-Hong-Kong. 19.Egypt Airlines-Egypth. 20.S.I.A.-Singapore.
21.Slovak Airlines-Slovakia. 22.Bangladesh Viman Sewa-Bangladesh.
23.Garuda Airways-Indonesia. 24.Air Lanka-Sri Lanka. 25.Air Canada-Canada.
26.Elitalia Airlines-Italy.
Famous Religions,Founders,Holy Books&Places of Worship-
1.Hinduism-Hinduism has no one Founder.(This religion is based upon the religion of original Aryan Settlers)-Ramayan,Vedas,Puranas and Geeta-Temple.
2.Sikh-Guru Nanak Dev-Guru Granth Sahib-Gurudwara.
3.Christianity-Jesus Christ-Bible-Church.
4.Islam-Prophet Mohammed-Koran(Quran)-Mosque.
5.Parsi-Zoroaster-Zend Avesta-Fire Temple.
6.Buddhism-Gautam Budda-Tripitaka-Budha Temple.
7.Jew-Moosa-Torah-Synagogue.
Principal Ten Language of the World(No. of speakers in Millions)-
1.Mandarian-1075-China. 2.English-514-Britain,Australia.
3.Hindi-496-India. 4.Spanish-425-Spain.
5.Russian-275-Russia. 6.Arabic-256-Central East.
7.Bengali-215-India,Bangladesh 8.Portuguese -194-Portugal.
9.Malay(Indonesia)-176-Malaysia. 10.French-129-France,Switzerland.
Intellengce Agencies of Some Prominent Countries.-
1.India-Research and Analysis Wing(RAW),Intellengce Bureau (I.B.),Central Bureau of Investigation (C.B.I.).
2.Pakistan-Inter Service Intelligence(I.S.I.)
3.U.S.A.-Central Intellegence Agency,Federal Bureau of Investigation.
4.Britain-Military Intelligence (M.I.)-5 and 6,Special Branch,Ultra,Joint Intelligence Organisation.
5.Israel-Mosad. 6.Egypt-Mukhabarat 7.Japan-Nicho.
8.Russia-K.G.B.(Komitel Gosudars-tvennoy Bezopasnosty) (Committee for State Security) 9.Canada-Security Intellegence Service.
10.S.Africa-Bureau of State Security 11.Australia-Australian Secuirty and Intelligence Organisation. 12.Iran-Sabak. 13.Iraq-Al-Mukhabarat.
14.France-S.D.E.C.E. 15.Spain-C.E.S.I.D. 16.Cuba-D.G.I.
Some Prominent Races of the World –
1.Veddas-Sri Lanka. 2.Somaid-West Sibera 3.Masai-East-Africa.
4..Muree-New Zealand. 5.Yakoot-Russian Tundra. 6.Papuans-New Guyana.
7.Pygmy-Congo Basin. 8.Bantu-Central And South Africa
9.Tartars-Siberia. 10.Baddu-Arab’s Desert. 11.Semang-Malaysia.
12.Lapps-European Tundra. 13.Eskimo-Canada,Tundra Region.
14.Hausa-Nigeria. 15.Kirhiz-Stepps(Russia). 16.Bushman-Kalahari Desert.
17.Red Indian-North America.
The Solar System: Some Facts.
Number of Plantes-8-Mercury, Venus,Earth,Mars,Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus and Neptune.
Largest Most- 1.Massive planet-Jupiter. 2.Brightest plant-Venus.
3.Brightest star-Sirius. 4.Fastest orbiting planet-Mercury. 5.Longest(Syndics)day-Mercury. 6.Most moons-Jupiter-39.
7.Planet with largest moon-Jupiter. 8.Greatest average density-Jupiter.
9.Tallest mountain-Earth. 10.Strongest magnetic fields-Jupiter.
11.Most circular orbit-Venus. 12.Shortest (syndics)day-Jupiter.
13.Hottest planet-Venus. 14.No moons-Mercury, Venus.
15.Planet with moon with most eccehtric orbit-Neptune.
16.Lowest average density-Saturn. 16.Deepest Oceans-Jupiter.
17.Greatest amount of liquid on the surface-Earth.
Solar Statistics .
Distance from the Earth-149.8 Absolute Visual Maghitude-4.75
Diameter-1,384,000 Core Temperature-15000000
Photosphere Temperature:5770K Rotation as seen from the Earth-25.38days.
Rotation as seen from Earth(near the poles)33 days. Age-About 4.5 billion years.
Chemical Composition-Hydrogen 71%,Helium 26.5% other elements 2.5%
Expected lifetime of a normal star-Abound 10 billion years.
Longest Rivers
1.Nile-Africa-6650 2.Amazon Mississippi-Missouri-S.America-6437.
3.Yangtze-Kiang-China-4344. 4.Lena-Russia-4400.
5.Niger-Africa-4180. 6.Murray-Darling-Australia-3780.
7.Volga-Russia-3690. 8.St.Lawrence Canada(USA)-4023.
9.Orinoco-S.America-2575. 10.Danube-Europe-2850 11.Indus-Asia-2900.
Largest Deserts of the World.
1.Subtrophical-Sahara,North Africa-9,064,650 Kalahari,Southern Africa-582,727sq.km. Thar,Indian/Pakistan Great Sandy-453,232sq.km, Australia-388,485sq.km.
2.Cool Coastal-Atacama,Chile S.A.-139,854sq.km.
3.Cool Winter-Gobi,China Colorado,Western USA-336,687sq.km. (also called the painted desert)
ATMOSPHERE_Composition of Gases in Atmosphere.
Nitrogen-78.03% Oxygen-20.99% Argon-0.93%
Carbon dioxide-0.03% Hydrogen-0.01% Neon-0.0018%
Helium-0.0005% Crypton-0.0001% Xenon-0.000,005%
Ozone-0.000,0001%
Types of World Agriculture.
Viticulture:The cultivation of the vine for production of grapes and wine.
Pisciculture:The breeding,rearing and transplation of fish by artifical means.
Sericulture-The raising of silk worms for the production of raw silk.
Horticulture:To grow flower front,vegetables on small plots.
Apiculture:Bee keeping on a commercial scale for the sale of honey.
Floriculture:The cultivation of flowers or flowering plants.
Mariculture:Sea farming,or the cultivation of marine plants and animals for commercial purposes.
Olericulture-The cultivation of vegetables and kitchen herbs.
 
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