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Monday, March 3, 2008

Markting,Solar System Question for Exams

MARKETING
Memorable Points-
1.Marketing comprises both buying and selling activities.
2.Marketing consists of those efforts which affect transfer in the ownership of goods and services and which provide for Physical distribution.
3.Marketing management is that field of business activity involving the establishment and execution of the plans of all of the phases or steps of a complete sales campaign.
4.Marketing consumer oriented approach include following point-
*Who are our customers? (Identified).
*Who could be our customers? (Potential customers).
*Where do live our customers? (Place where are customer located).
*What are customers in terms of economic and social context salaried people, traders, agriculturists, industrialists and like.(Back ground).
*What do your customers need, require and expect?(Needs)
Since the market consists of sellers and buyer, information will have to the gathered about the rival sellers also, we may like to know?
*Who are the other sellers? (Producers or service suppliers)
*Where are they? (Sellers where they are located)
*What are they? (product suppliers or services supplier or mediator)
*How are they organdies? (One make to each other).
*What are their activities? (Agriculturists, Exporters, Industrialists or Traders).
*What do they offer? (For re-sale or reproduction or regeneration)
*What are their strengths and weaknesses? (Quailty, Competition, Brand, Money, Organisation, Supply Channel or others).
*How much of the market does each command? (Inter Firm Transfer, or Transfer Pricing)
*The marketing environment of the business organization (Policy)
*Business organisation’s objectives (mission)
*Business organisation’s position (Status)
*Business organisation’s structure and information system (Startegy).
MARKET ENVIRONMENT-It is external to the management function, largely uncontrollable, potentially relevant to marketing decision making and changing and/or constraining in nature.
Socio Economic Forces-Socio-economic forces I a country determine the extent and level of industrialization, as they influence the demand for a product or a service. It include customer, Compettion, Substitute, Tradition, Comlementers, Techological change, Potential compettion.
*Marketing mix consists-product planning and development, pricing, channelks of distribution, sales force, advertising sales promotion, physical distribution, marketing research and general planning.
*Packaging may be defined as the general group of activites in product planning which involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.
*Price policies provide the guideline within which pricing strategy is formulated and implemented.
*Cost plus pricing method= selling price= unit total cost derived unit profit.
*Pricing policies of public enterprises in India are-competitive pricing policy, cost puls pricing policy, subsidy pricing policy, no profit no loss pricing policy, and pricing policy based on Government.
*The expected price for a product is the price at which customer conscious or unconsiciously value the product, it is what they think the product is worth.
THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Solar system means system of the sun. It has only one star called the sun and all objects that travel around it.
The Solar System:
*8 planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) and
*4 Dwarf planets-Pluto, Charon, Eris, Ceres-along with the numerous satellites that travel all around most of them.
asteroids-planet like objects*meteoroids- chucks of iron and stone
*comets-bodies of dust and foreign gases.
*interplanetary dust-drifting particles and
*plasma-electrically charged gas that together make up the interplanetary medium.
The Sun-
*The sun one of more than 100 billion stars in the giant spiral galaxy called the Milky Way.
*The sun is the center of the solar system. Its mass is about 740 times as much as that of all the planets combined.
*The sun continuously gives off energy in several forms-visible light; invisible infrared, rays, radio waves and plasma. The sun generally move in almost circular orbits around the galactic center at an average speed of about 250 km per second.
*At this rate, the sun, takes 250 million years to complete one revolution round the center. This period is called a cosmic year.
*Like all other stars, the sun is composed mainly of hydrogen. Its energy is generated by nuclear fusion in its interior. It is calculated that the sun consumes about a trillion pounds of hydrogen in about 5 billion years and turn into a red giant.
Solar Layers-
Photosphere is the glowing surface of the sun, which we see. Temperature: 4,226 to 5,726 degrees Celsius.
Chromosphere is called so because of its reddish colour. The gases that extend away from the photosphere maker up the chromosphere , which is about 2,500 kms thick. From the bottom to the top the everage temperature rises from 4,226 to 9,726 degrees Celsius. The chromosphere merges into the corona, the outermost region of the atmosphere.
Corona is magnificiently visible during eclipses. The temperature of the corona, which extends far into space, is about 2,700,000.c hot enough to emit ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths. The corona extends millions of kilometers into space above the photo-sphere and is very hot-millions of degrees Celsius.
Core is where thermo-nuclear reactions take place and the temperature drop as gases move away from the core. Outside the core is the convection zone. Here, turbulent motions of gases transport the energy generated in the core towards the photosphere. The visible white light of the corona is made up of a continuum of colours, such as violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red. Super-imposed on this continuum are hundreds of dark lines called the Fraunhofer lines(reveral the temperature and density of the element).
The sun is constanly emitting streams of its substance (mainly hydrogen) as protons(nuclei of hydrogen atoms) in all directions. Sometimes these emissions are massive. They are then seen as prominences which send huge bouts of incandescent material upward from the sun’s surface. When these eruptions roll out of the atmosphere of the sun for many kilometers, they are called solarflares. The solar flares are spectacular-hot ionize gas rolling out as enormous clouds, 20 to 40 time the size of the earth at speeds of around 100 km per second through corona, the outer layer of the sun’s atmosphere.
In 1958, the American physicist, Engene Norman Parker, called units outward stream of protons the solar wind. Recent researches using satellite have shown that the solar wind is made up of plasma,that is, ionized gas, mostly hydrogen and helium, contaning nearly ah equal number of protons and electrons. It flows outward from the sun at supersonic speeds, around 400 m a second. Apparently, this wind sweeps through the whole Solar System to a distance of 40 AUs from the Sun which coincides with very limitsof the planetary orbits.
The surface of the Sun changes continuously. Bright spots called pleages and dak spots are called sunspot frequently from and disappear. Gases often shoot up violently from the surface.
Solar activity has been observed to follow a 11-year cycle. Owing to the Sun’s rotation, the solar wind travels in spirals and carries with it magnetic fields.
 
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