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Monday, March 3, 2008

Just for Exams (Computer)

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS-
ALU- Arithmetic Logic Unit.
ATM- Automatic Teller Machine.
BASIC –Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
BSNL –Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited.
CAD –Computer Aided Design.
CASE -Computer Aided Software Engineering.
CD –Compact Disk.
C-DAC –Center for Development of Advanced Computing.
COBOL-Common Business Oriented Language.
CPS-Character Per Second.
CPU-Central Processing Unit.
DNA-Digital Network Architecture.
IBM-International Business Machine.
LAN-Local Area Network.
LSD-Least Significant Digit.
MAN-Metropolitan Area Network.
MTNL-Mahan agar Telephone Nigam Limited.
NIC-Network Interface Card.
PROM-Programmable Read-Only Memory.
ROM-Read Only Memory.
RAM-Random Access Memory.
SNOBOL-String Oriented Symbolic Language.
SSI-Small Scale Integration.
UPC-Universal Product Code.
VAN-Value Added Network.
WWW-Word Wide Web.
XHTML-Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language.
XML-Extensible Markup Language.
AM-Amplitude Modulation.
BCD-Binary Coded Decimal.
CAM-Computer Aided Manufacturing.
CD-ROM-Compact Disk-Read Only Memory.
CL-Command Language.
DBMS-Data Base Management System.
EPROM-Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.
FORTRAN-Formula Translation.
GB-Giga Bites.
I/O-Input and Output.
IC-Integrated Circuit.
KB-Kilo Bytes.
OMR-Optical Mark Reader.
WAN-Wide Area Network.
WORM-Write-Once Read Many.
OOP-Object Oriental Programme.
PC Personal Computer.
TB-Tara Bytes.
MB-Mega Bytes.
MHz-Mega Hertz
VCR-Video Cassette Recorder.
VSNL-Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited.
POINTS TO REMEMBER-
1.A computer is a normally considered to be a calculating device, which can perform arithmetic operations at enormous speed. It is also known as a data processor since it only computes in the usual sense, but also performs other functions with the data.
2.The activity of processing data using a computer is called data processing. Data is the raw material used as input to data processing, and information is the processed data obtained as the output of data processing.
3.Computers are the characterized by their being automatic, speed and accuracy of computing, diligence, versatility, power of remembering, and lack of intelligence and feelings.
4.Charles Babbage is considered the father of modern computers.
5.Some of the wells known early computers are the MARK 1 (1937-44), the ATANASOFF-BERRY (1939-42), the ENIAC (1943-46), the EDVAC (1946-52), the EDSAC (1947-49) and the UNIVAC 1 (1951).
6.Dr. John Von Neumann introduced the “stored programme” concept, which considerably influenced the development of modern digital computers. Due to this feature, we often refer to modern digital computers as stored program digital computers.
7. “Generations” in computer talk in a step in technology. It provides a framework for the growth of the computer industry. Originally, it was used to distinguish between various hardware technologies, but now it has been extended to include both hardware and software.
8.Until today, there are totally five computer generations, namely, first, second, third, fourth and fifth generation.
9.All computer systems perform the following five basic operations, for converting raw input data into useful information inputting, storing, processing, outputting, and controlling.
10.The input unit allows data and instructions to be fed to the computer system from the outside world, in computer acceptable form.
11.The input interfaces transform the input data and instructions fed to the computer, through its input devices, into the binary codes, which are acceptable to the computer.
12.The output unit allows the computer system to supply the information, obtained from data processing, to the outside world, in human acceptable (readable) form.
13.The output interfaces transform the information, obtained from data processing, from binary form to human acceptable (readable) form.
14.The storage unit of a computer system holds the data and instruction to be proceed, and the intermediate and final results of processing. The two types of storage are- primary and secondary storage. As compared to primary storage, secondary storage is slower in operation, larger in capacity, cheaper in price, and can retain information even when the computer system is switched off or reset.
15. During data processing, the actual executions of the instructions take place in the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of a computer system.
16.The control unit of a computer system manages and coordinates the operations of all the other components of the computer system.
17. The control unit and the arithmetic logic unit of a computer system are jointly known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) , which serves as the brain of the computer system, and is responsible for controlling the operations of all other units of the system.
18.A computer is often referred to as a computer system, because it is made up of intergrated components (input, output, storage, and CPU), which work together to perform the steps called for, in the program being executed.
19.Number systems are basically of two types: non- positional and positional.
20.In a non-positional system, each symbol represents the same value, regardless of its position in the number, and the symbols are simply added to find out the value of a particular number. It is very difficult to perform arithmetic with such a number system.
21.In a positional number system, there are only a few symbols, called digits, and these symbols represent different values, depending on the position, they occupy in the number. The value of each digit in such a number is determined by three considerations.
*The digit itself.
*The position of the digit in the number.
*The base of the number system (where base is defined as the total number of digit available in the number system).
22.The number system that we use in our day-to-day life is called the decimal number system. In this system, the base is equal to 10, because there are altogether ten symbols or digits (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,).
23.Some of the positional number systems, which are used in computer design and by computer professionals, are binary (for which base is 2), octal (for which base is 8), and hexadecimal (for which base is 6).
24.Readers must know the techniques for the following types of conversions to convert numbers from one base to another.
*Converting to decimal from another base
*Converting from decimal to another base.
*Converting from a base other than 10, to a base other than 10.
*Shortcut method for binary to local conversion.
*Shortcut method for local to binary conversion.
*Shortcut method for binary to hexadecimal conversion.
*Shortcut method for hexadecimal to binary conversion.
25.Binary coding schemes are used in computers to represent data internally. In binary coding, every symbol, which appears in the data, is represented by a group of bits. The group of bits used to represent a symbol is called a byte. Most modern computers use 8 bits to represent a symbol. Hence. The term byte is commonly used to mean a group of 8 bits.
26.The commonly used computer codes for internal representation of data are BCD, EBCDIC and ASCII.
27.BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) is a 6-bit code, which can represent 64 different characters.
28.EBCDIC (External Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit code, which can represent 256 different characters.
29.ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is one of the most popular computer codes, It is of two types-ASCII-7 and ASCII-8. ASCII-7 is a 7-bit code, which can represent 128 different characters and ASCII-8 is an 8-bit code, which can represent 256 different characters.
MOBILE PNONE GLOSSARY
Mega pixel-This term refers to the size of an image, usually in reference to a photo from a digital camera or camera phone. Mega pixel means one million pixels. The resolution of digital cameras and camera phones is often measured in mega pixels
Radio-Some phones include an integrated FM radio for listening to live-broadcast FM radio stations.
AAC-Short for Advanced Audio Coding. AAC is a newer alternative to MP3. Compared to MP3, AAC is designed to have better sound quality with smaller file sizes(requiring less memory). Newer and better versions include AAC++. AAC is also designed to work with DRM technologies.
MP3-Short for MPEG Layer 3. MP3 is a common file format for music and other audio content. It is commonly used on the internet, on PCs, and on portable devices, including dedicated music players and phones with music players functionatoly. MP3 files can be created at different “bit rates”. Mp 3 files usually do not include DRM technology that would limit playback and sharing.
Network-GSM 850 (GSM 800) is simply GSM technology operating in the Cellular (850 MHz or “800”) frequency band. “800” is still common when referring to CDMA and AMPS (analog) technology.
Band-In wireless communication, band refers to a contiguous range of radio frequencies.
Memory Card Slot- It is used primarily to add memory to a phone, in the form of a memory card. Extra memory can be used to store and transfer photos, videos, music, computer files, or backups of phone data such as the phone book and calendar.
Shared Memory (Dynamic memory)-This refers to the structure of the phone memory for storing information. Shared (Dynamic) means that there is no large “pool” of memory available for multiple types of information. The different types of info can include photos, videos, music, voice recordings, software applications, wallpapers, and ring tones.
Polyphonic Ring tones-It is more natural and realistic sound for melodies. Most polyphonic ringers can also simulate the sound of various instruments, instead of just tones.
Games-Many phones include simple games for the user to pass the time when waiting, traveling, etc. The games referred to here are ones built into the phone, that do not require a connection and airtime to play. Many phones also include the ability to download new games wirelessly.
SMS-Short Message Service is a feature available with some wireless phones that allow users to send and/or receive short text message. Nearly all-digital phones can receive SMS message. Most phones can also send them.
MMS-Multimedia Messaging Services include longer text, graphics, photos, audio clips, video clips, or any combination of the above, within certain size limits. MMS is frequently used to send photos and videos from camera phones to other MMS phones or email accounts.
OS (Operating System)-The “core” software that controls the basic operation of a mobile device, such as Symbian, Windows Mobile, and palm OS, allow full software applications to run on the top of the OS, such as games, organizer applications, and communication applications.
Vibrate-The phone vibrate when it would otherwise ring or make a sound or an alarm. This is often useful for situations where an audible phone ringer would be inappropriate.
VGA (Video Graphics Array)-A standard size/resolution for digital cameras, images,(files), and display. VGA is larger than CIF, QCIF, and QVGA, but smaller than SVGA, XGA, and mega pixel.
MPEG: A family of standards for digital video. MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 are the most common.
Bluetooth-Bluetooth is a short-range wire-less technology used to create PANs (Personal Area Network) among your devices, and with other nearby devices.
Blue tooth is named for the 10th century Viking King Harald Blue tooth, a Danish king who conquered Norway.
EDGE-Enhanced Data for Global Evolution. An upgrade for GSM/GPRS networks that triples data rates (speed) over standard GPRS. EDGE is used automatically revert to the slower GPRs standard when EDGE service is not available.
(IrDA- Infrared Data Association): A standard for transmitting data via infrared (non-visible) light waves. Infrared technology in phones has mostly been replaced by blue tooth.
GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)-GPRS is used for various data applications on phones, including wireless Internet(WAP), MMS, and software that connects to the internet. GPRS offers a tenfold increase in data speed over precious (circuit-switched) technologies, up to 115kbit/s (in theory). Typical real-world speed are around 30-40 kbps.
3G(3rd generation)-Analog cellular phones were the first generation. Digital phones make the second generation(2G). 3G is loosely defined, but generally includes high data speeds, always-on data acess, and greater voice capacity. The high data speeds are possibly the most prominent feature. They enable such advanced features as live, streaming video. There are several different 3G technology standards.
USB(Uiversal Serial Bus)-USB is a type of plug-in connection that is used to connect devices, including some phones, to desktop or laptop comuters. Some phones support USB accessories to be connected directly to the phone, with no computer involved.
Virtual reality-Three-dimensional images on a screen that are viewed using special equipment(like gloves and goggles). The user feels as if he or she is the part of the image and can interact with everything all around.
Virus-A program that damages other programs and data. It goes into a computer through telephone lines or shared disks.
WAP-Also known as “Wireless Internet”, “Wireless web”, or “Mobile web”. WAP through a mini-browser software lets you navigate various enabled services through the internet. Today different standards exist which is related to WAP 2.0, a standard, that the industry is converging on.
TFT(thin film transistor)-It is a type of LCD(liquid crystal display) flat-panel display technology.
























1.Computer is a: device which performs arithmetic and logical operations.
2.The term ‘PC’ means: Personal Computer.
3. ‘PC XT’ is an abbreviated term for: Personal Computer Extended Tecnology.
4.The full form of ‘PC AT’is: Personal Computer Advanced Tecnology.
5. ‘SMPS’ stands for: Switch Mode Power Supply.
6.Memory Unit of a Computer is a: Internal Part.
7.Maximum digits in Binary Number System are: 2.
8.The ASCII value of C is: 67.
9.The decimal number 24 is equal to binary number:11000.
10.Choose out the input device: Mouse.
11.CPU stands for: Central Processing Unit.
12.Control Unit is the part of: CPU.
13.The first instrument that was used for calculations, was: ABACUS.
14.In which year Blaise Pascal invented Pascal’s Machine, made up of gears, which was used for adding the numbers quickly? : 1642.
15.Abacus have been in use since: 250 AD.
16.Gottfried Leibnitz a famous mathematician who improved on Pascal’s Machine was a: British.
17.An Englishman known as the father of computer: Charles Babbage.
18.Period of first generation computer was:1946-1955.
19.Period of second generation computer was: 1956-1965.
20.Which one is a Secondary Memory of the Computer? Floppy.
21.What is the base of Octal No System: 2.
22.What is the base of Decimal No. System? : 10.
23.The word ‘flow lines’ is related to: Flow Chart.
24.Symbol in flow charts represent the: Magnetic Tape.
25.In Octal Number System maximum digits used are: 8.
26.Which one is not a Package? BASIC.
27.What does ‘CLS’ command in DOS stand for? Clear the screen.
28.A set of data is known as: Field.
29.IBM stands for: International Business Machine.
30.The adjacent figure is showing: Branching.
31.The adjacent figure is showing: Looping.
32.Random Access Memory is: Prime Memory.
33.Floppy is …….part of the computer: external.
34.1 KB is equal to:1024 bytes.
35.Printer is: Output Unit.
36.Floppy is: Both Intput-Output Units.
37.Characterisitics of Computer are: 1.High speed2.Automation3.Diligence4.Versatility.
38.One byte is equal to: 8 bits.
39.What is the base of hexadecimal number system? - 16.
40.John Napier was born in: 1550.
41.ENIAC was invented by: J.P.Eckert, J.W.Mauchly.
42.EDSAC stands for: Electronic Data Storage Automatic Calculator.
43.Complier, compiles the programme: whole programme at a time.
44.Interpreter, translates the programme: line by line.
45.Unprocessed fact is known as: datum.
46.Collection of fields is known as: record.
47.The name which change their value during the execution of the programme is:Charles Babbage.
48. ‘logs’ and ‘bones’ was invented by: John Napier.
49.Adding Machine was invented by: Blaise Pascal.
50.Compter: accepts the information, manipulates that information, display the result.
51.Main memory is also known as …… memory-primary.
52.Second memory is also known as ……. Memory-Auxiliary.
53.EDSAC was invented in: 1947.
54.AU abbreviated for- Arithmatic and Logic Unit.
55.MICR stands for- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition.
56.What is data- Processed fact.
57. ‘Set of instructions’ is known as: Programme.
58.Compiler convents- high level language to machine language, machine language to high level language.
59. ‘Collection of records’ is known as- file.
60.Speed of Line Printer is measured in- CPS.
61. ‘Index hole’ is related to: Floppy Disk.
62.The period from 1976 to present is known as: Fourth generation computer.
63. ‘BASIC’ is a –Language.
64.Which of the following is not a language- Unix.
65.What is fox pro? –Package.
66.Moniter of a computer is: output device.
67.Keyboard of a computer is: input device.
68.OCR stands for- Optical Character Recognition.
69.RAM stands for- Random Access Memory.
70.ROM is abbreviated for: Read Only Memory.
71. ‘Tabulating Machine’ , invented by Charles Babbage, was named as: Analytical Engine.
72.The oldest and the most commonly used input medium has been cards which was introduced by:Herman Hollerith.
73.Position value of 9 in (9870)10 is: 9000.
74.1 Mega Byte is equal to- 1024 bytes.
75.1 Gega Byte is equal to: 1024 MB.
76.A set of instruction which describe the steps to be followed in order to carry out an activity is called: Algorithm.
77.Unit of memory is: Byte.
78.Out of given items which one is not related to computer? – LCA.
79.When the key is on-capital letters appear on the screen.
80.ENIAC is-first generation computer.
81.UNIVAC is-first generation computer.
82.The word ‘BASIC’ stands for-Beginners all-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
83.How many Bytes are contained in 360 KB floppy diskette-368640.
84.How many Bytes are contained in 1.2 MB floppy deskette?-.
85.Winchester Disk is also known as-Hard Disk.
86.John Napier, a mathematician who invented logarithms, was-Scottish.
87.The value which does not change during the executive of the programme is-Constant.
88.1 MB +360 KB = ? 1384 KB.
89.1024 KB + 1 MB + 1.2 MB = ? 3.2 KB.
90.LED stands for-Light Emitting Diode.
91.Daisy Wheel Printer is-Character Printer.
92.Laser Printer is-Page Printer.
93.Floppy Disk is a –Secondary Storage Device.
94.Error correction is also known as-Debugging.
95.Period 1966 to 1975 is known as-Third Generation.
96.Unix is –Operating system.
97.Vaccum tubes were used in –first generation.
98.Mouse of a computer is-External Device.
99.Which is not a register-OCR.
100.Which number system we use in our daily life-Decimal.
101.The digit used in Binary Number System are-0,1 .
102.In ASCII representation, the value of A is-65.
103.Decimal equivalent of Binary Number 100 is-4.
104. ‘Abacus’ was invented in which of the following countries-China.
COMPUTER
Computer-Computer is an electronic device that can perform activities that involve mathematical, logical, and graphical manipulation with remarkable speed and high accuracy.
Essential Parts of computer-A computer has various parts and each part mouse (Input device), central processing Unit (CPU, a system Unit), monitor,(VDU), and printer(out-put devices).
Port-A part is a connector in a computer where you can connect a device.
Input device-Input device is used to provide data and instructions to the computer where the data received from input devices are processed and sent to the output devices. It contains a motherboard, video card and sound card.
Output device- Output device are capable of representing the data that are sent after the processing is completed. These are moniter, printer, speaker etc.
Modem-A modem is an electric device that converts digital signals to analog signals and vice versa. It is used to connect with other computers that are in some other locations.
Memory-Every computer has a storage space, which is known as primary storage or main memory. It is a temporary storage area, which is built into the computer hardware. Memory stores input data, instructions for processing and output data before it is sent to an output device.
Storage-Computer storage refers to the data stored in an electromagnetic form. Computer stores data inform of numbers (0-9), letters (A-Z), and symbols and other characters (#,@,( ),{ },”, “ ) etc. For storing all these types of characters it uses binary system, two digits, 0 and 1 are used which is used as bits (binary digits)
Bit-A bit is the smallest unit of measurement of storage capacity.
Byte-A set of 8 bits is called a byte.8 bits=1 byte, 1024 bytes=1 Kilo Byte(KB), 1024 K bytes=1 MB (Mega byte), 1024 MB=1 GB (Giga byte), 1024GB=1 TB (Terabyte)
Storage Bite -(i) Floppy disk- A floppy disk is a portable storage medium that can store small amount of data. The storage capacity of a floppy disk is usally1.44 MB.
(ii) Hard disk- a hard disk is a magnetic disk on which data is stored. A hard disk normally stores 10 to 80GB and more. It has a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium.
(iii) Compact Disc- The CD is made of polycarbonate that is capable of storing digital information. The storage capacity is approximately 650 MB or 700 MB.
(iv) Digital Video Disc- (DVD)-A DVD ROM is similar to CD-ROM, but it can store larger amount of data, which is minimum of 4.7GB. It is used to store very large multimedia presentations and movies that can combine high-quality sound and graphics. DVD can maximum store up to 17GB of data.
Software-Software refers to computer programmes, which provide the instructions that enable the computer hardware to work. It consists, operating system, Application software Computer language, language translator like, Assembler, computer and Interpreters.
Hardware- Hardware refers to those parts of the computer that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drivers, display screens keyboard, printers etc.

Operating system-An o/s is the software that makes the computer to work. It is the first software that is loaded in the computer. It controls and manages the devices that are connected to a computer and helps to sun application software.
Keyboard-The keyboard is a unit for typing text into the computer. It is similar to a typewriter with some addition keys.Mostly a keyboard has 10 U keys.
Alphanumeric keys-(A to Z)
Numeric keys-(0-9)
Punctuation Keys-(;,:,?,’ ‘ “ “ )etc.
Special keys, Arrow keys, Control Keys and Function Keys(f1-f2)
Mouse-A mouse is used to point to and select options displayed on moniter. The mouse has a rubber –coated round ball inside it that is used to move the mouse pointer on the screen. But in newer mouse devices called a scroll mouse or whole mouse,there is a wheel between the left and right buttons.
Scanner-A scanner is used to copy a picture or a photograph on to the computer. A scanner scans a picture or a photo and stores it as a digital image in the cimputer.
Microphone-A microphone is an input device used to record sound. Microphones convert sound waves into audio signal.e.g. You can record your voice and save it in your computer.
Web Camera-A web camera is an input device that converts visual images into digital form. When the web camera is connected to computer stores everything that the camera focuses.
Motherboard-The system unit contains a large circuit board that has a number of tiny electronic circuits and other components. It is known as motherhood.
Sound Board- A sound card is a device in the system unit that enables a computer to process and play sound. A sound card enables the computer to record sound through a microphone and plays the sound as output through speaker.
Moniter-A moniter is an output device that resembles a television screen. The moniter receives the output data from the processor and display it on its screen. The monitor receives the output data from the processor and display it on its screen. The moniter typically comes with its own reparate power button to turn it on or off.
Printer-A printer is an output device used to play sound. The speaker receives the output from sound card and play the sound.
Generations of computer-
1st Generation- These machines and others of their time tube was a fragile glass device,which used filaments as a source of electronics and could control electronic signals .First understand by computers but impossible for human because they consists entirely of numbers.
Second Generation-A new electronic switching device,called transister was used in computers instead of vaccum tubes. Assembly language were used,they eneble a programmer to use names instead of numbers.Each type of CPU has its own machine language,a programme written for one machine will not sun in another.
Third Generation- The IC technology was used in third Generation.Integrated circuits consisting of several electronic components like transistors,resistors and capators grown a singal silicon chip.It used high level languages to instruct the computer. Each language has a unique set of keywords and special syntax for program instructions. Some of these are BASIC,C,C++,COBOL,PASCAL,FORTRAN.
Fourth Generation- It follow large scale integration.Near about 30,000 electronic components are packed on a single silicon chip.Fourth Generation languages are closer to human language.Like Base,Foxpro,Scol etc.
 
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