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Monday, March 3, 2008

States of india and capitals,Ranks,Parliment house,Uno, And More

STATES OF INDIA AND THEIR CAPITALS
STATES CAPITALS STATES CAPITALS
Andhra Pardesh Hydrabad Mizoram Aizawal
Arunachal Pardesh Itanagar Nagaland Kohima
Assam Dispur Orissa Bhubaneshwar
Bihar Patna Punjab Chandigarh
Chhattisgarh Raipur Rajasthan Jaipur
Goa Panaji Sikkim Gangtok
Gujarat Gandhi Nager Tamil Nadu Chennai
Himachal Pardesh Shimla Uttar Pardesh Lucknows
Jammu Kashmir Srinagar Uttranchal Dehradun
Jharkhand Ranchi West Bengal Kolkatta
Kerla Tiruanantpuram Karnataka Banglore
M.P. Bhopal Meghalaya Shillong
Meghalaya Shillong Manipur Imphal

UNION TERSITORIES:
Andaman and
Nickobar Island Port blair Chandigarh Chandigarh
Dadar and Nagar Haveli Silvassa Daman and Diu Daman
Lakshawdeep Kavasatti Pondicherry Pondicherry
IMPORTANT PLACES ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONS
PLACES PERSONS PLACES PERSONS
Bardoli Sardar Patel
Fatehpur Sikkri Akbar Jersusalem Jesus-Christ
Kapil Vastu Gautam Budha Macedonia Alexander
Pondicheery Aurobindo Ghosh Porbunder M. Gandhi
Shantiniketan R.N.Tagore Talwandi Guru Nanak

POPULAR NAMES
Andhra Kesari T. Prakassam Anna G. N. Anna Durai
Bapu Gandhi Ji Chacha J.L. Nehru
Bapu Ji Jagjeevan Ram Fuhrer Adolf Hitler
Bard Of Avon Shakespeare Desh Bandhu C.R.Dass
C.R. Chakarvaty Raj Grand Old Man
Gopal Acharaya of India Dada Bhai Naroji
Gurudev R.N.Tagore Guruji M.S.Golwalker
Iron Man of India Sardar Patel Iron Duke Iron Wellington
Lok Nayak Jayparkash Narayan Lady of Lamp Florence
Lok Manya Bal Gangadhar Tilak Nightingle
Mahamanna Pt. Madan Mohan Man of Destiny Napolean
Malavia Desert Fox Gen. Rammel
Punjab Kesari Lala Lajpat Rai Man of Blood & Iron Prince Bismarck
Desert Fox Gen. Rammel Father of English
Wizard of the North Sr. Walter Scott. Poetry Geoffrey Chaucer
Mark Twain Samuel Clemens Tommy atkins English Solider
Poolu French Solider G.I. American Solider
Jawan Indian Rajaji Chakravati Rajgopalchari
Deshratan Dr.Rajinder Parsad Neta Ji Subash Chander Bose
Shere-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh Tipusultan Shere-a-Mysore
Ashok Kumar Dadamuni Hind-di-chadar Guru Teg Bahadur
Baba Sahib Dr. B.R.Ambedkar Little master Sunil Gavaskar
Flying queen P.T Usha Master Blaster Sachin Tendulkar
Flying Sikh Milkha Singh Shaheed-e-azam Bhagat Singh
Indian Shakespeare Kalidas

YEARS OBSERVED BY U.N.O.

1967-International Tourism Year 1968-Human rights Year&1998 also
1970-International Ed.Year 1972-International Book Year
1973-Copernicus year 1974- World Population Year
1975-International Woman Year 1979-International Year Of the Child
1981-International year of disabled 1983-world communication year
1985-International Youth year 1986-Int. year of Peace
1990-Int. Literacy year 1992-Int. Space year
1994- Int. Year of family 1995-Int. Year of Tolerance
1999- Year of Older persons 2000-Year of the Cultural of Peace
2001- Int. Year of volunteer 2002- Int. Year of Ecotourism

IMPORTANT RESIDENCE OF THE WORLD
1.Buckinggham palace (London) –King/Queen of U.K.
2. 10 Downing street (London)-Prime Minister of U.K.
3. Elysee palace (Paris)-The French President
4. Rashterpati Bhawan (New Delhi)-President of India
5. Vatican (Rome) –Pope
6. White house (Washington)- USA President
NAMES OF PARLIAMENTS
USA-Congress, Senate (Upper house) House of representatives (Lower House)
UK-Parliament: House of commans (Lower house) House of lords (Upper House)
China- National people’s Congress GERMANY-Bundestag (Lower house) Bundesrat (Upper House) Iran- Majlis ISRAEL-Knesset, JAPAN-Diet
NEPAL-National Panchayat, NETHERLANDS-The States General
NORWAY-Storting, KOREA, NORTH-Supreme People’s Assembly
AFGANISTAN-Shora, DENMARK-Folketing, POLAND – Sejm
RUSSIA- Duma, SWITZERLAND – Federal Assembly

(INPORTANT BOUNDARY LINES)
Durand Lines – between India and Afghanistan
Mac. Mohan line – between India and China
Red Cliffe Line – between India and Pakistan
Maginet Line – between France and Germany
Hidenburg Line – between Poland and Germany
38th Parallel – between North Korea and South Korea
49th Parellel - between USA and Canada

WORLD FAMOUS OFFICAL BOOK
1. White Paper – India 2. Blue Book – Britain
3. White Book – Portugal, China, Germany 4.Yellow Book – France
5. Grey Book – Japan and Belgium 6. Orange Book - Netherlands
SCHEDULES TO THE CONSTITUTION
First Schedule – List of states and union territories
Second schedule – Salary and allowance of the president Governors, Speaker and Judges
Third Schedule – Contains forms of oath and affirmation
Forth Schedule – Allocation of seats of each state and U.T.
Fifth – Administration and control of schedule areas and Schedule Tribes
Sixth Schedule – Ad. Of trible areas in Assam, Meghalya, and Mizoram
Seventh Schedule – Distribution of powers and function between the center and state in three lists.
Eighth Schedule – A language recognized by- Parliament.
Ninth schedule - it contains laws passed by the union of states, which cannot be taken to course.
Tenth schedule – disqualification on the ground of Political defection.
Eleventh schedule – Regarding powers of Panchayati Raj.
Twelve schedule – powers of local authority.
FOREIGN SOURCES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION
Britain – Parliament system, Collective responsibility of cabinet.
America – Fundamental right, Citizenship, Independent Judiciary, Judicial Review
Canada – Division of Powers
Ireland – Directive Principles of state policy
Germany – Emergency provisions
Russia – Fundamental duties
Australia – Concurrent list
RIGHT TO CONSTITUTION REMEDIES IS CALLED THE SOUL OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS (ART.32)

Fundamental duties have been incorporated in the constitution through42nd amendment (act.1976)
The voting age has been reduced from 21 years to 18years by 61st Amendment
Article36 –51 in part iv related to directive principle of state policy
42nd Amendment is also known as a “Mini Constitution’’ “The worlds secular and socialist” are added in 1976.
44th Amendment 1978 deleted the right to property from the fundamental rights and made it a legal right Art.352 was amended to provide armed rebellion” as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency.
73rd & 74th related with panchayaty raj mancipality(1993)


INDIAN GEOGRAPHY
Area: 3287,263 sq. km., Length: North to South 3214 km , Width : East to West – 2,933km. Latitude: 8­ 4’ N to 37 6’ N Lognitude : 68 7’East to 97 25 East
Total coast line : 7516.6Km.
BOOKS AND AUTHORS
Ajatshatru Jai shankar prasad Anandmath Bankim Chandra Chatterji Devdas Sharat Chandra Chatterjee Discovery of India J.L.Nehru
Divine Life Swami Sivanada Gitanjali R.N. Tagore
Godaan M.P.Chand The Guide R.K.Narayan
Hind Swaraj M.K.Gandhi India Divided Rajendra Prasad
India of
Our Dreams M.V.Kamath Kadambari Bana Bhatt
Kamayani Jai Shankar Prasad Kapal Kundat Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Kayakalp Munchi Prem Chand Life divine Aurobindo Ghosh
Malgudi Days R.K.Narayan My Days R.K.Narayan
My Experiments
With Truth M.K.Gandhi Pinjar Amrita Pritam
Operation Bluestar-
TheTrueStory Lt. Gen. K.S.Brar Panchatantra Vishnu Sharma
Ram Charita
Manas Tulsidas Ramayana Valmiki
Rangbhoomi Munshi Prem Chand Ratnavali Harsha Vardhan
Saket Maithili Sharan Gupt Shakuntala Kalidas
Swami And Friends R.K.Narayan
The God of Small
Things Arundhati Roy We,Indians Khushwant Singh
A Brush With Life Satish Gujral A Possible India Partha Chatterjee
A Conceptual
Encyclopedia of
Guru Granth Sahib S.S. Kohli
A Foreign Policy
for India I.K.Gujral A Suitable Boy Vikram Seth
A House for
Mr. Biswas V.S.Naipaul A Passage to England Nirad C. Chaudhuri
A Prisoner’s
Scrap Book L.K.Advani A Revolutionary Life Laxmi Sehgal
A Secular Aganda Arun Shourie Adhe Adhure Mohan Rakesh
A Tunnel of Time-
An Autobiography R.K.Laxman Amar Kosh Amar Singh
Accession to
Extinction D.R.Mankekar Agni Pariksha Acharya Tulsi
Ageless Body,
Timeless Mind Deepak Chopra Between the Lines Kuldip Nayar
An Idealist View
of Life Dr.S.Radhakrishnan Beyond Belief V.S.Naipal
An Unfinished Dream Dr.Verghese Kurien Bharat Aur Europe Nirmal Verma


Autobiography of
an Unknown Indian Nirad C.Chaudhuri Bisarjan Rabindranath Tabore
Beyond Boundaries;
A Memoire Swaraj Paul Bharat Bharti Maithli Sharan Gupat
Bishvraksh Bankim Chanra Chatterji
Broken Wings Sarojini Naidu
Buddha Chritam Ashvaghosha A Bunch of Old Letters J.L.Nehru
Chandalika R.N. Tagore Chidambara Sumitranandhan pant
Chitra R.N.Tagore Conquest of Self M.K.Gandhi
Coolie Mulk Raj Anand Court Dancer R.N.Tagore
Crescent Moon R.N.Tagore Dark Room R.K.Narayan
Dashkumar Charitam Dandi Death of a city Amirita Pritam
Dharamashastra Manu Diplomacy in
peace and war J.N.Kaul
Distant Neighbours Kuldip Nayar Eight Lives Rajmohan Gandhi
Eassays on Gita Aurbindo Ghosh Faces of Everst Maj.H.P.S. Ahiuwalia
From India to America S.Chandra Shekhar From Rajpath
to Lokpath Vijaya Raje Scindira
Ganadevata Tara Shankar
Bandopadhyaya Geet Govinda Jai Dev
Ghasiram Kotwal Vijay Tendulkar Gita Rahasya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Gitanjali R.N.Tagore Glimpses of
World History J.L.Nehru

Golden Threshold Sarojini Naidu Gora R.K. Narayan
Half A Life V.S.Naipaul Harsha Charita Bana Bhatt
Himalayan Blunder J.P. Dalvi Hindu View Of life Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
Hinduism Nirad C. Choudhuri Hungry Stones Rabindranath Tagore
Idols Sunil Gavaskr India Betrayed:
The Role Of Nehru B.N.Sharma
India–From Curzon
to Nehru and after Durga Dass India Unbound Gurucharan Das
India in transition JagdishBhagwati IndiaWins Freedom Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Lost Child Mulk Raj Anand Prison Diary Jaya Prakash Narayan
Raghuvansa Kalidas Shivaji-Great Patriot Lala Lajpat Rai
Wings of Fire A.P.J.Abdul Kalam Yashodhara Maithili Sharan Gupt


Sri Lanka Ceylon

COMMISSIONED RANKES
NEW NAME OF COUNTRIES / CITIES

New Name Old Name
Bangladesh East Pakistan
Beijing Peking
Cape Kennedy Cape Canaveral
Ghana Gold Coast
Ho Chi Minh city Saigon
Indonesia Dutch East India
Iran Persia
Iraq Mesopotamia
Istanbul Constant In Pole
Myanmar Burma
Malaysia Malaya
Namibia South West Africa
The Netherlands HollandArmy
General
Lt. General
Major General
Brigadier
Colonel
Lt. Colonel
Navy
Admiral
Vice Admiral
Rear Admiral
Commodore
Captain
Commander
Air Force
Air Chief Marshal
Air Marshal
Air Vice Marshal
Air Commodore
Group Captain
Wing Commander
Major
Captain
Lt.
Second Lt


Lt. Commander
Lieutenant
Sub Lt.
Acting Sub Lt.


Squadron Leader
Flight Lt.
Flying Officer
Pilot Officer
PARLIAMENT HOUSE

Area – 2.45 Hectares
Diameter of Circle - 170.69 Meter
Sand Stone Pillars - 144
PANCHAYATI RAJ:
There are three tiers Panchayati Raj System in India.
Village Panchayat (At Village Level)
Panchayat Samities (At the Intermediate Level)
Zila Parishad (at District Level)
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES : 22
There are four new languages :-
Bodo, Sethali, Methali, Dogri.

UNITED NATION ORGANISATION
The U.N.O came into existenect in 1945. Its charter was signed on 26th of June 1945. It came into forces on 24th Oct.1945.
U.N.O Day –24th Oct.
Head Quarter of U. N. O. –New York
Flag –White U.N. emblem is superimposed on light blue background. The emblem consists of the global map projected from the North Pole and embraced in twin olive branches
Language :- The official Language of the U. N. O. are English, French , Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish, but the working languages are English and French only.
Main organs of the U. N. O.
General Assembly 2. Security Council 3. Economic and Social Council
Trusteeship Council 5. International Court of justice 6. Secertariat
The membership of U. N. O. reached 191 on Sept.27, 2002 with the admission of Switzerland and East Timer into the world body.
Agencies Headquarter
Food And Agriculture Organization FAO, IFAD Rome
International Lab Our Organization ILO, ITU Geneva (Switzerland)
World Health Organization WHO,WIPO Geneva (Switzerland)
United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) Paris
IBRD or World Bank Washington
IMF Washington
IFC,IDA Washington
NATIONAL SYMBOLS
National Emblems: adopted from Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashok on 26th Jan. 1950. Satyamev Jayate inscribed below the emblem in Devnagri-script
National Flag: The National flag of India is a horizontal tricolor of deep saffron (Kesari), white and dark green in equal proportion. In the Centre of the white band there is a wheel in navy blue to represent the chakra with 24 spokes. The Flag is one and half times as long as it is broad. It was adopted on July 22, 1947, and was flown for the first time on 15th August 1947.
National Anthem:- Jana Gana Mana by R. N. Tagore adopted on 24th Jan. 1950. It is also known as the Morning song of India.
National Song :- Vande Matram written by Bankim Chandra Chatterji convert into English by Arvindo Ghosh And adopted from Anand Math.
National Calender:- Introduced from March 22, 1957 and based on Saka era. Chetra falling on 22 March in a normal year and on 21 March in a leap year
National Bird –Peacock
National Flower –Lotus
National Animal –Tiger


Prime Minister (First)
1. Longest tenure - J. L. Nehru (17 Years)
2. Shortest Tenure - A. B. Vajpayee (13 days)
3. Woman - Indira Gandhi
4. Non Congress - Morarji Desai
5. Did not face Parliament - Charan Singh
6.Did not address Nation
On Independence Day - Chandra Shekhar
7. From South - P. V Narsimha Rao
8.Not a members of other
House of Parliament - P . V. Narsimha Rao
9. Died in Office J. L Nehru
10. Died in foreign country - Lal Bahadur Shastri (in USSR)
11. Lost election - Indira Gandhi (in 1977)

SIKH GURU’ S:-
1.GURU NANAK born in Talwandi now called ‘Nankana Sahib’ in 1469. He died in 1539.Guru Nanak was founder of Sikhism
2.Guru Angad Dev –Introduced Langar System
3.Guru Amar Das –Social reformer and discarded Sati Prath
4.Guru Ram Das –Founded city of Amritsar
5.Guru Arjan Dev –Built Golden Temple and compiled Aadi Granth or Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Arjan Compiled Aadi Granth 1604 with the help of Bhai Gurdas Bhalla ji. Guru Arjan Dev was executed by Jahangir on the advice of Chandu Shah. Guru Arjun Dev got the foundation of Harmandir Sahib laid down by Muslim Faqir Mian Mir.
6.Guru Hargobind Singh –Started the system of Akal Takht and Miri, Piri.
7.Guru HarRai
8.Guru Harkishan
9.Guru Teg Bahadur –Guru Teg Bahadur was executed by Aurangzab.
10.Guru Gobind Singh –Founder of Khalsa-13th Apail,1699, Baisakhi, Khalsa means Military brotherhood. Zafarnama :- This is a letter written by Guru Gobind Singh to Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. This letter was written because Aurangzeb was committed many atrocities on people. So, Guru Gobind Singh asked Aurangzeb to give up the policy of atrocities. The Creation of Khalsa took place at Anandpur Sahib on the 1st Baisakhi i.e. 13th April, 1699 A .D.
11.Dasam Granth was compiled by a devoted Sikh Mani Singh after passing away of Guru Gobind Singh.
12.Guru ki kashi :- Takhat Damdma Sahib. It is famous Gurudwara, which is people situated at Talwandi Sabo. It is called Guru ki kashi.
13.Guru ki Wadali :- It is Birth place of Guru Hargobind Ji(new Amristar). It is a famous gurdwara of Punjab.
14.Banda Bahadur was born 27 Oct 1670. His real name was Lachman Dev or Lachhman Das. Once during hunting an arrow of Banda Bahadur struck a pregnant she deer Banda Bahaur was greatly pained to see the tragic death of the deer and its two kids.He renounced the world and became a
Bairagi. Banda Bahadur adopted the name Madho Das after becoming a bairagi. Madho Das (Banda Bahadur) met Guru Gobind Singh. He said ,”I am your Banda (Servant) thus Madho Das became Banda.GuruSahib called him Banda the Brave . Thus acquired the name ‘Banda Bahadur’.
15.SharomaniGurdwara prabandhak committee was established on 15th Nov,1920 at Akal Takhat Amirtsar.
16.Sikh Gurdwara act was passed an implemented on Nov 1,1925.
17.akalis launched a non-biolent movement in 1921 with the aim of –llliberating Sikh Gurudwaras from Mahants.
LITERATURE:-
Creator of Asa-di-war, Japuji Sahib –Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Creator of Bachittar Natak –Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Creator of ‘Jap Sahib –Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Creator of Anand Sahib’ –Guru Amar Das Ji.
Creator of Sukhmani Sahib –Guru Arjun Dev Ji.
Compiler of Guru Granth Sahib –Guru Arjun Dev Ji
Writer of ‘Adi Granth’ at the time of its compilation of –Bhai Gurdas Bhalla ji
Creator of Bani Written is Dasam Granth –Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Most Famous writer of ‘Qisa Puran Bhagat’ –Fazal Shath
Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his administration
Date of Birth of Maharaja Ranjit Singh –November 2,1780
Name of Parents of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Father’s Name : Maha Singh, Mother Name : Raj Kaur
Time of treaty of Amritsar between Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Britishers –25th April, 1809
Name of foreign minister of Maharaja Ranjit Singh –Faqir Azizudeen.
Head of finance department at the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh –Diwan Kaura Mal
Most famous prime minister of Maharaja Ranjit Singh –Dhian Singh Dogra
Meaning of Kankut system by Maharaja Ranjit Singh –Tax on started crop in the field
‘Nazim Adalat’ at the time of Maharaja Ranjit Singh State level –Court
Capital city of Maharaja Ranjit Singh –Lahore
First War between Sikes and British –1845 A.S
Second Anglo Sikh War –1848 A.D-1849 A.D.
Which dam has been built on Beas near Talwara –Pong Dam
On Which river has Pandoh dam been constructed Beas
The Dam constructed on Satluj River is –Bhakhra Dam
The Dhusi Dam has been constructed on the river –Beas
The old name of Amritsar was –Ramdas Nagar
Which Guru got constructed Akal Takhat –Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji
The real Granth of Guru Granth Sahib has been placed at –Kartar Pur
Kartar Pur was founded by –Guru Arjun Dev Ji
Guru Nanak Dev got enlightenment at –Sultan Pur
Which Guru got constructed Buraj Baba atal –Guru Hargobind Sahib
The old name of Punjab was –Sapat Sindu
The Gurudwara situated at present where foundation of Khalsa Panth was laid –Gurudwara Kesgarh Sahib
The other name of Harmandir Sahib is –Darbar Sahib
The Guru, who founded Anandpur Sahib was –Guru Teg Bahadur
Bhagat Singh was hanged on –23 rd March, 1931
Number of Districts in Punjab –17, Lok Sabha Seats –13
NOBEL PRIZES –The honour of winning the Nobel Prizes go to the following 7 Indians:

NAME
FIELD YEAR
1. Rabindar Nath Tagore Literature 1913
2. C. V. Raman Physics 1930
3. Hargobind Khurana Medicine 1968
4. Mother Teresa Peace 1979
5. S. Chandrashekhar Physics 1986.
6. Prof. Amaritya Sen Economics 1998
7. V. S. Naipaul Literature 2001

Highest Gallantry Award –Param vir Chakra
Hightest Civilian Award –Bharat Ratan
First Olympic games held at Athens in 1896.
First Deputy Prime Minister of India –Sardar Patel , 2nd Deputy Prime Minister of India –Morazi Desai, 3rd Deputy Prime Minister of India –Choudhari Charan Singh , 4th Deputy Prime Minister of India –Jagjivan Ram, 5th Deputy Prime Minister of India –Y.V.Chauan
6th Deputy Prime Minister of India – Devi Lal , 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India –Lal
Krishan Advani.
AIDS is caused by Virus .Aids is due to human Immunodficiency virus.
AIDS :-Acquired Immunue Deficiency Syndrome
HIV:-Human Immunodficiency virus.
CLASSICAL DANCES OF INDIA
Manipuri of Manipur 5. Bharat -natyam of Tamil Nadhu
Odissi of Orissa 6. Kathak of Uttar Pradesh
Katha-Kali of Kerala 7. Bihu of Assam
Kuchi- Pudi of Andhra Pradesh
Legal Services Clinic :- A legal Services Clinic, Open 24 hours on all days, has been established in Ahmedabad , to provide free services of retired high court judges and reputed lawyers.
The State of Haryana come into being on November 1, 1966 as result of the re-organization of the old Punjab state into two separate states. It consisted of the Hindi-speaking areas of Punjab, Second Language status has been given to Punjabi (1996)
Books and Authors
Life Divine-Aurobimdu Ghosh
Ain-I-Akbari is written by Abul fazal
Panchtantra-Vishun Sharma
Mahabharata-Ved Vyas
India wins Freedom –Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad
Discovery of India -Pt. J.L. Nehru
My Experiment with truth – Gandhi
Madhushala (Popular song “Rang Bares” is also written by him but sung by Amitabh Bachan) Harivansh Rai Bachan Prisoner’s Scrapbook –L.K Adbani

SPORTS :-
Agha Khan cup –Hockey , Durand cup – Football (India), Duleep/Ranji Trophy/ Reliance Cup –Cricket(India) ,Thomas Cup –World Badmintor (Men) , Davis Cup is associated with Lawn Tennis
HISTROY
Buddism : Buddhism was founded by Gautam Buddha. His original name was Gautam Siddhartha, a Kahatriya –Born in 1563 B.C. at Lumbini in Nepal. He attained enligtenment at Bodhgaya under papal tree. Buddha died at the age of 80 yrs in 483 B.C. at Kusinagar (District).He came to be known as Mahavira or Jina, The conqueror of passing ; his followers was known as Jainas. He passed away at age of 72 in 462 B.C. at Pavapuri , a place near modern Rajgir. Mahavira’ s teachings are known as the “Tri Ratna” or the three jewels of Jainism, which lead to the attainment of salvation. They are (i) Right faith (ii) Right knowledge and (iii) Right action . The jains used and developed Prakrit, the language of the common people. Their religious was written in Ardhamagadhi.
Vasco da Gama landed in calicut in 1498.
1st Chinese trayeler, Fathein came in India during a period of Chandra Gupta-II (Vikamaditya) 2nd Chinese trayeler, Hieun Tsang came in India during the reign of Harshvardhana.
Who is known as the napoleon of India –Samudra Gupta for his military exploits.
Harshavardhana has written 3 books –1. Priya Darshika 2. Rattanavali 3. Naga Nanda . The offical poet of harshvardhan was Bana bhatt. Bana Bhatt composed Harsha Chirtra and Kadambri.
First battle of Panipat was founded between Badur and Brahim Lodhi at Panipat in 1556 and founded the Mugahal dynasty in India.
Second battle of Panipat was founded between Akbar and Himu at Panipat in 1556. Akbar defeated Himu and became the rular of Delhi and Agra.
Thrid battle of Panipat was founded between Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanisthan and Marathas in 1761.In this third battle of Panipat, Mahathas were completely routed by Ahmed Shah Abdali.
Indian National Army was founded by Ras Bihari Boss –Prefence 1952 is also correct , Subash Chander Boss in 1943 in Singapore alongwith Rasbihari Bose. The Main aim of Azad Hind Fauz was to liberation of India.
The Brahmo Samaj was established by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1828 Whose leadership was later taken by Debendernaph Tagore and Keshub Chanda Sen.
The Arya samaj was founded Swami Dayanad Saraswati in 1875 and attempted to reform the Hindu Religion from its decadence.
The Remakrishna mission was founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1896.
Annie Besant –founded Theosophical society Started Home Rule League in 1916. She was the first women President of India National Congress. Sarojani Naidu was the first Indian Women president of Indian National Congress. India National Congress founded by A. O. Hume in 1885. However, First President of Indian National Congress- W. C. Banerjee.
Swadeshi movement was started in 1905.
Gaddar Party founded at Francisco in 1913 by Lala Hardyal Singh, Home Rule League founded by Annie Bassant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak Preference in 1915 or 1916. Rowlatt Act Passed in 1919.
Non –Co –operation Movement started in 1920 by Gandhi Ji. However, non –co –operation movement ended in 1922 after Chauri Chaura Incident
Simon Commission –1927, Civil Disobedience movement –1930, “Do or die” –Mahatma Gandhi
“Man of peace” –Lal Bhadur Shastri , “Nightingale of India” –Saorjini Naidu, “Iron Man of India” –Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, “Father of Indian unrest” –Bal Gangadhar Tilak , “Jai Hind” –Subash
Chander bose , “Architect of India” –J.L. Nehru , “Grand Old man of India” –Dada Bhai Naroji

Mughal Dynasty (1526-1540 and 1555-1857)
Mughal Art was unfluenced by Persian art
Babur –(1526-1530) 5. Jahangir –(1605-1627)
Humayun 6. Shah Jahan –(1628-1658)
Sher Shah Suri –(1540 –1545) 7. Aurangzeb –(1658-1707)
Akbar –(1556-1605)
BABUR
Founder of Mughal empire 2. 1st battle of Panipat between babur and IbrahimLodhi
HUMAYUN
Son of Babur 2. Humayun Tomb at Delhi –1st Mughal Monument
SHER SHAH SURI
1.He was an Afghan 3. Issued a coin cailed ‘Rupia’
Introduced a brilliant administration 4. Built Grand Trunk Road Linking Peshawar to Calcutta
AKBAR
1.Eldest Son of Humayun 6. Akbar’s tomb –Sikandria
2.Real Founder of Mughal empire 7. Largets building built called ‘Agra Fort’
3.Good Works done by him 8. Abul Fazal was a famous Poet who has written Aaine
4.Popular for his toleration -Akbari, Akbar -Name
5.Foundation of Din-E-illahi 9. Tulsi Das composed Ram Charit Manas .
JAHANGIR
Real Name –Salim 4. He married Mehr-Un-Nissa or Nurjahan in 1611.
Son of Akbar 5.Executed Guru Arjun Dev at the advice of Chand Shah
Jahangir’ s Tomb Built at Lahore
He is known for his Strict administration of Justice
SHAHJAHAN
Son of Jahangir 5. ‘Red Fort’ and ‘Jama Masjid’ got built at Lahore
His wife ‘Mumtaz mehal’ died in 1631 6. Imprisoned by his 3rd son Aurangzeb till he died in 1666
Built Taj Mahal in her memory in Agra
Known for promotion of Art Architecture and Culture










JAHANGIR
Real Name –Salim 5. He married Mehr-Un-Nissa or Nurjahan in 1611.
Son of Akbar 6. Executed Guru Arjun Dev at the advice of Chand Shah
Jahangir’ s Tomb Built at Lahore
He is known for his Strict administration of Justice
SHAHJAHAN
Son of Jahangir 5. ‘Red Fort’ and ‘Jama Masjid’ got built at Lahore
His wife ‘Mumtaz mehal’ died in 1631 6. Imprisoned by his 3rd son Aurangzeb till he died in 1666
Built Taj Mahal in her memory in Agra
Known for promotion of Art Architecture and Culture

AUANGZJEB
3rd son of Shah Jahan 2. Banned all religious festivals and demolished Hindu temple
Ruled for 50 years and was a cruel King
Executed Guru Teg Bahadur when he refused to embrace Islam
NADIR SHAH
A Persian King during the reign of Mohammad Shah took the ‘Kohinoor’ diamond to Afghanistan
Capital city of Maharaja Ranjit Singh –Lahore
1. Who was first Governor General of free India ? -Lord Mountbatten
2. The first Indian Governor General of free India -C. Rajagopalachari
3. Who was the first Governor General of British India ? –Warren Hasting (1772 –1793)
4. Who was the known as father of civil service in India -Lord Cornwallis (1786 –1793)
Who abolished sati pratha and other cruel rites (He is also regarded as father of modern western education in India) Lord W. Bentick (1828 –35) (Sati Pratha was abolished in 1829 with the help of Raja Ram Mohan Rai)
Who introduced widow remarriage act (1856) -Lord Dalhousie


ABBREVIATIONS
B.Ed. –Bachelor of Education C.V.T. –Classical and Vernacular Teacher
CBSE –Central Board of Secondary Education NAAC -National Assessment and Accreditation
Council
DIET – District Institute of Education and Training MHRD -Ministry of Human resource Development
DPI – Director Public Instruction MLL -Minimum Level of Learning
DEO –District Education Officer M.ED -Master of Education
ETT –Elementary Teacher Training
KG -Kindergarten
ECCE –Early Child Care and Education IGNOU -Indira Gandhi National Open University
HRD –Human Resource Development JNU -Jawaharlal Nehru University
ISBN -International Standard Book Numbering NFE -Non-Formal Education
IARI –Indian Agricultural Research Institute

AICT – All India Council of Technical Education
B.P.E.O –Block Primary Education Officer
U.G.C –University Grants Commission
UNESCO –United Nations Educational , Scientific and Cultural Organization
UEE -Universalization of elementary Education
TLC -Total Literacy Campaign
TGT -Trained Graduate Teacher
SCERT -State Council of Education Research and Training
REC -Regional Engineering College
PSEB -Punjab school Education Board
PTA -Parents-Teachers’ Association
NCTE –National Council For Teacher Education
NPE -National Policy on Education
NSS -National Services Scheme
NVS -Navodaya Vidyalaya School
NET -National Eligibility Test
KVS -Kendriya Vidyalaya School
SAARC declared 1991-2000 as the Decade of Girl child
The term ‘Golden Quodrangle’ refers to National Highways Development project connecting the four Indian metro-cities
Charak was the famous court physician of Kanishka
Tropical evergreen forests of Indian are found in Kerala
Which rock is formed by the deposits of animals shells and skeletons is Limestone
Supreme court held that only the Government has authority to remit death sentence of a convict of life imprisonment
Supreme court held that the sexual harassment of woman at work place violates the fundamental rights under article 14 and 21 of Constitution of India
Supreme court held that a Hindu Husband who contract second marriage without dissolving first marriage after converting to Islam is guilty under section 494 of Indian Penal Code
Supreme court held that the appointment of Lok Pal of a State should be done in consultation with the Chief Justice of the High Court of that State.
Supreme Court has decided that it is well settled that evidence of eyewitnesses cannot be discarded merely on the ground that theyare relatives of the deceased
Sachin Tendulkar Is the man of the Tournamentin the recently held ICCI world Cup 2003.
Operation Iraqi freedom was the code given to America’s attack on iraq.
C.D. Sahay is the New Chief of RAW (Research and Analysis Wing )
Finance minister -Mr. Jaswant Singh
External affairs -Mr. Yashwant Sinha
Euro, the single currency of 300 millions people in 12 nation was launched on Jan 1, 2002.
Hamid Karzai : He is the President Of the Govt. in Afghaanistan.
Sir V.S. Naipaul : He is the 2001 Nobel Prize winner for literature.
Secretary General of the UN and citizen of Ghana, Kofi Annan has been given the Nobel Peace Prize (2001) for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world. He shares the prize with the United Nations.
 
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