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Thursday, November 15, 2007

M.SC ANATOMY

ANATOMY — M Sc
OBJECTIVES
At the end of the two years of training programme in Master of Science in Anatomy the student should
be able to:-
1. Acquire comprehensive knowledge of structure and functions of human body, ontogeny of human
development and genetic mechanisms involved in normal and abnormal development, knowledge of
light microscopic and ultrastructure of human body. Knowledge of structure and functional correlation
of nervous system and be able to communicate the same clearly and with precision.
2. Inculcate habit of scientific enquiry and be able to identify lacunae in the existing knowledge in a
given area. Acquire knowledge of modern research techniques and be familiar with the recent
advances in human biology.
Learning Activities, Training And Evaluation
During the course students have formal teaching and are trained for teaching and research
I. Didactic teaching:
Topics in gross anatomy, microanatomy, embryology, neuroanatomy, histochemistry, and genetics,
along with related practical sessions.
II Training
Communication skills – journal club, seminars
Hands on experience – techniques in micro, neuro, gross anatomy, embryology, histochemistry,
genetics, electron and confocal microscopy.
Teaching experience – taking UG classes : demonstrations and practicals for one semesters
(six months)
Educational technology – preparation of AV aids for teaching, posters/manuscripts for presentation
in conferences/workshops and publication in journals. Setting objective
questions – SAQs, MCQs and OSPE. Prepare teaching modules &
museum specimens, casts. Participation in organization of symposia/
workshops.
2 Syllabus M Sc / M Biotech — AIIMS
III. Research
Thesis – progress monitoring every semester.
Presenting paper/poster at conferences/Preparing manuscripts for documentation.
Thesis work presentation at regular intervals.
Thesis submission at the end of 1 &1/2 yrs.
IV. Evaluation of training
Written/practical assessment every semester. Feedback on teaching/training programme.
M.Sc. Anatomy Examinations
Final examination at the end of the course has theory, practical and viva-voce.
Theory
Paper-I : Gross Anatomy with evolution and Comparative Anatomy. Gross Anatomy will include
functional Anatomy. (Section-1)
Paper-II : Microscopic Anatomy, Developmental Anatomy and Genetics. (Section-2)
Paper-III : Neuroanatomy including development and microscopic structure (Section-3)
Practical and Viva
1. Histological techniques, identification light and electron microscopic structure of tissues of body.
2. Slides, specimens of developmental anatomy, genetics, neuroanatomy to assess comprehensive
knowledge in these areas.
Viva-voce on gross anatomy, living anatomy, sectional anatomy and neuroanatomy, developmental
anatomy and genetics.
SECTION – 1
GROSS ANATOMY
COURSE CONTENT
Structure of whole human body in detail, including functional, sectional and radiological anatomy.
PRACTICAL
Dissection of entire body. Preparation of museum specimens, casts, plastination, fixation and preservations
of human body.
SECTION – 2
HISTOLOGY AND HITOCHEMISTRY
COURSE CONTENT
1. Cell Biology: Cytoplasm – Cytoplasmic matrix, cell membrane, cell organelles, cytoskeleton, cell
inclusions, cilia and flagella.
Course and Curriculum of Anatomy 3
Nucleus – nuclear envelope, nuclear matrix, DNA and other components of chromatin, protein
synthesis, nucleolus, nuclear changes indicating cell death.
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, cell renewal. Cellular differentiation and proliferation.
2. Tissues of Body: Light and electron microscopic details and structural basis of function, regeneration
and degeneration.
3. The systems/organs of body – Cellular organization, light and electron microscopic features, structurefunction
correlation, and cellular organization.
PRACTICAL
Preparation of histological sections, light microscopy and its applications, electron microscopy and its
applications, confocal microscopy, histological staining -routine and special stains, identification of
normal and abnormal organelles in electron micrographs , three dimensional interpretation, artifacts
identification.
GENETICS
COURSE CONTENT
Normal and abnormal chromosomes, Molecular genetics, developmental genetics, immunogenetics,
population genetics and genetic counselling.
1. Human Chromosomes - Structure, number and classification, methods of chromosome preparation,
banding patterns. Chromosome abnormalities, Autosomal abnormalities – syndromes, Sex
chromosomal abnormalities – syndromes, Molecular and Cytogenetics.
2. Single gene pattern inheritance, Autosomal and Sex chromosomal patterns of inheritance, Intermediate
pattern and multiple alleles, Mutations, Non Mendelian inheritance, Mitochondrial inheritance, Genomic
imprinting, parental disomy.
3. Multifactorial pattern of inheritance: Criteria for multifactorial inheritance, Teratology, Structure of
gene, Molecular Screening, Cancer Genetics – Haematological malignancies, Cancer Genetics,
Pharmacogenetics.
4. Reproduction Genetics- Male infertility, Female Infertility, assisted reproduction, Preimplanation
genetics, Prenatal diagnosis, Genetic Counselling Ethics and Genetics.
PRACTICAL
DNA Isolation from peripheral blood lymphocytes, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Fluorescence
In-Situ Hybridization (FISH), Chromosomal Analysis
DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY
COURSE CONTENT
Gametogenesis, early human development, general and systemic embryology,environmental and genetic
influences on normal growth and development, teratogenesis.
PRACTICAL
Models, specimens of early human development and slides of chick and pig embryos to correlate avian
and mammalian early development with human development. Specimens of congenital malformations.
4 Syllabus M Sc / M Biotech — AIIMS
IMMUNOLOGY
COURSE CONTENT
Immune system and the cell types involved in defense mechanisms of the body. Gross features,
cytoarchitecture, functions, development and histogenesis of various primary and secondary lymphoid
organs in the body. Biological and clinical significance of the major histocompatibility complex of man
including its role in transplantation, disease susceptibility/resistance and genetic control of the immune
response. Common techniques employed in cellular immunology and histocompatibility testing. Molecular
hybridization and PCR technology in immunology research particularly mechanism of antigen presentation,
structural and functional relevance of the T cell receptor, genetic control of the immune response,
molecular basis of susceptibility to disease.
PRACTICAL
Techniques of DNA preparation, electrophoresis and southern blot hybridization.
SECTION – 3
NEUROANATOMY
COURSE CONTENT
Brain and its environment, Development of the nervous system, Neuron and Neuroglia, Somatic sensory
system, Olfactory and optic pathways, Cochleovestibular and gustatory pathways, Motor pathways,
Central autonomic pathways, Hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, Cross sectional anatomy of brain and
spinal cord.
PRACTICAL
Identification of structures in sections of brain stem and spinal cord at different levels. Staining nervous
tissue using Nissl’s staining and other special stains.
RECOMMENDED BOOKS
1. Gray’s Anatomy 38th edition, 1995 reprint in 2000 Williams et al
Churchill Livingstone
2. Wheaters Functional Histology 4th ed.(2000) B. Young and J.Heath
Churchill Livingstone www.med.uc.edu.embryology
3. Histology: A text & atlas 3rd edition (1995) M.H.Ross, E.& L.J.
Williams & Wilkins
4. Medical Embryology 8th edition Jan Langman
William and Wilkins
5. Genetics in medicine 6th edition, 2001 J.S.Thompson &
W.B. Saunders & Co.Philadelphia, London M.W. Thompson
6. Human Neuroanatomy 9th edition, 1996 Stuin J and Carpenter MB
7. Clinical Neuroanatomy for Medical Students Richard S. Snell
Willian and Wilkins

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