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Saturday, November 24, 2007

CBSE +2 Chemistry

Class XII (Theory)
One Paper Time: 3 Hours 70 marks
Unit No. Title Marks
Unit I Solid State 4
Unit II Solutions 5
Unit III Electrochemistry 5
Unit IV Chemical kinetics 5
Unit V Surface chemistry 4
Unit VI General principles and processes of Isolation of Elements 3
Unit VII p-Block Elements 8
Unit VIII d- and f- Block Elements 5
Unit IX Coordination Compounds 3
Unit X Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 4
Unit XI Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 4
Unit XII Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids 6
Unit XIII Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen 4
Unit XIV Biomolecules 4
Unit XV Polymers 3
Unit XVI Chemistry in Everyday life 3
Total: 70
Unit I: Solid State (Periods 12)
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic
solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three
dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms
per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Unit II: Solutions (Periods 12)
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases
in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation
of Boiling Point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular
masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass.
Unit III: Electrochemistry (Periods 14)
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations
of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis
(elementary idea), dry cell - electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a
cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells;
corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics (Periods 12)
Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration,
temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant,
integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision
theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment)
Unit V: Surface Chemistry (Periods 8)
Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids;
catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal
state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic,
multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian
movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsion - types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
(Periods 8)
Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic
method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc
and Iron.
Unit VII: p-Block Elements (Periods 14)
Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation
states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen - preparation, properties and
uses; compounds of nitrogen: preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid,
oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds .of
phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl 3 , PCl 5 ) and oxoacids
(elementary idea only)
Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,
occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties
and uses; simple oxides; Ozone. Sulphur - allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur:
preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of
manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states,occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens:
preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds,
oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration. Occurrence, trends in physical
and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements (Period 14)
General introduction ,electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals,
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy,
oxidation states, ionic radii, colour catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds,
alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and KMnO 4 .
Lanthanoids - electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid
contraction.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds (Period 12)
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic
properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds.
bonding; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis,
extraction of metals and biological systems).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. (Periods 12)
Haloalkanes:
Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of
substitution reactions.
Haloarenes:
Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for
monosubstituted compounds only)
Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane,
tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers (Periods 12)
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of
primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols;
mechanism of dehydration, uses of methanol and ethanol.
Phenols : Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic
nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids (Periods 12)
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation,
physical and chemical properties mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha
hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen (Periods 10)
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical
properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules (Periods 12)
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose),
oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen);
importance.
Proteins - Elementary idea of á - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides proteins, primary
structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only),
denaturation of proteins; enzymes.
Vitamins -Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA .
Unit XV: Polymers (Periods 8)
Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation),
copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon,
polyesters, bakelite, rubber.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life: (Period 8)
1. Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants,
antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
2. Chemicals in food - preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.
3. Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.Practicals
Evaluation Scheme for Examination Marks
Volumetric Analysis 10
Salt Analysis 6
Content Based Experiment 4
Class record and viva 5
Investigatory Project 5
Total 30
Practicals Syllabus
A. Surface Chemistry. (Periods 6)
(a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol.
Lyophilic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum
Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
(b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsions of different oils.
B. Chemical Kinetics (Periods 4)
(a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium
thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
(b) Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
(i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature
using different concentration of iodide ions.
(ii) Reaction between potassium iodate, KIO 3 and sodium sulphite: (Na 2 SO 3 )
using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
C. Thermochemistry (Periods 4)
Any one of the following experiments
i) Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
ii) Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HC1) and strong base (NaOH)
iii) Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (Hydrogen bond
formation) between acetone and chloroform
D. Electrochemistry (Period 2)
Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn 2+ ||Cu 2+ /Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes
(CuSO 4 or ZnSO 4 ) at room temperature.E. Chromatography (Periods 2)
i) Separationofpigmentsfrom extractsofleavesand flowersbypaperchromatography
anddeterminationofR f values.
ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations
only (constituents having large difference in R f values to be provided).
F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (Periods 4)
i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
G. Preparation of Organic Compounds (Periods 4)
Preparation of any two of the following compounds
i) Acetanilide
ii) Di-benzal acetone
iii) p-Nitroacetanilide.
iv) Aniline yellow or 2 - Napthol aniline dye.
v) Iodoform
H. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds: (Periods 6)
Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (primary)
groups.
I. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and
their detection in given food stuffs. (Periods 4)
J. Determination of concentration/molarity of KMnO 4 solution
by titrating it against a standard solution of: (Periods 8)
i) Oxalic acid,
ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate
(Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
K. Qualitative analysis (Periods 14)
þ Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
Cations - Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , As 3+ , Al 3+ , Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ ,
NH 4
+
Anions - CO 3
2- , S 2- , SO 3
2- , SO 4
2- , NO 2
- , NO 3
- , Cl - , Br - , I - , PO 4
3- ; C 2 O 4
2- , CH 3 COO -
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
PROJECT
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
A few suggested Projects.
þ Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
þ Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
þ Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd
formation, effect of temperature, etc.
þ Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions
(temperature, concentration, time etc.) :
þ Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and, effect of pH and temperature on it.
þ Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram
flour, Potato juice, carrot juice etc.
þ Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
þ Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric powder, chilli powder
and pepper.
Note: Any investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen
with the approval of the teacher.
 
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