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Saturday, November 24, 2007

CBSE +1 Chemistry

COURSE STRUCTURE
Class XI (Theory)
One Paper Time: 3 Hours 70 marks
Unit No. Title Marks
Unit I Some Basic concepts of chemistry 3
Unit II Structure of Atom 6
Unit III Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 4
Unit IV Chemical Bonding and molecular Structure 5
Unit V States of Matter: Gases and Liquids 4
Unit VI Thermodynamics 6
Unit VII Equilibrium 6
Unit VIII Redox Reactions 3
Unit IX Hydrogen 3
Unit X S-Block Elements 5
Unit XI Some P-Block Elements 7
Unit XII Organic Chemistry: some basic Principles and Techniques 7
Unit XIII Hydrocarbons 8
Unit XIV Environmental Chemistry 3
Total 70
Unit: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry (Periods 14)
General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.
Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton’s
atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.
Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition,
empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based
on stoichiometry.

Unit II: Structure of Atom (Periods 16)
Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson’s
model and its limitations, Rutherford’s model and its limitations. Bohr’s model and its
limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, De Broglie’s
relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers,
shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli
exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and
completely filled orbitals.
Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties (Periods 8)
Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic
law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic
radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure (Periods 16)
Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character
of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry
of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and
shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homo nuclear diatomic molecules
(qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids (Periods 14)
Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points.
Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law. Charles law, Gay
Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro’s
number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical
temperature.
Liquid State - Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical
derivations).
Unit VI: Thermodynamics (Periods16)
Concepts Of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,
measurement of .U and .H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond
dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization,
and solution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous
processes, criteria for equilibrium.
Unit VII: Equilibrium (Periods 16)
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass
action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic
equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization,
concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility product, common
ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII: Redox Reactions (Periods 6)
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions,
applications of redox reactions.
Unit IX : Hydrogen (Periods 8)
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of
hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water,
heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) (Periods 14)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first
element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization
enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and
halogens; uses.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate,
biological importance of sodium and potassium.
CaO, CaCO 3 and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca
Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements (Periods 16)
General Introduction to p-Block Elements
Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation
of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first
element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds:
borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.
Group 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation
of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first
element, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of
some important compounds: oxides.
Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and
zeolites.
Unit XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques
(Periods 14)
General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC
nomenclature of organic compounds
Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and
hyper conjugation.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions;
electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions
Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons (Periods 16)
Classification of hydrocarbons
Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical
reactions including halogenation, free radical mechanism, combustion and pyrolysis.
Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical
properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen,
water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis,
oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods
of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of -hydrogen,
halogens, hydrogen halides and water.
Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance
aromaticity ; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. - nitration
sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation: directive
influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and
toxicity.
Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry (Periods 6)
Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere,
smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of
ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes; green
chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental
pollution.
Practicals
Evaluation Scheme for Examination Marks
Volumetric Analysis 10
Salt Analysis 6
Content Based Experiment 4
Class Record and Viva 5
Investigatory project 5
Total 30
PRACTICALS SYLLABUS Total Periods 60
A. Basic Laboratory Techniques (Periods 2)
1. Cutting glass tube and glass rod
2. Bending a glass tube
3. Drawing out a glass jet
4. Boring a cork
B. Characterization and purification of chemical substances (Periods 6)
1. Determination of melting point of an organic compound
2. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound
3. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the
following: Alum, copper sulphate, Benzoic acid.
C. Experiments related to pH change (Periods 6)
(a) Anyone of the following experiments:
þ Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, varied
concentrations of acids. ,bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
þ Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.
þ Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.
b) Study of pH change by common-ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases.
D. Chemical equilibrium (Periods 4)
One of the following experiments:
(a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/
decreasing the concentration of either ions.
(b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H 2 O)6 ] 2+ and chloride ions by changing
the concentration of either of the ions.
E. Quantitative estimation (Periods 16)
þ Usingachemicalbalance.
þ Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.
þ Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against
standard solution of oxalic acid.
þ Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.
þ Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it against
standard sodium carbonate solution.
F. Qualitative analysis (Periods 16)
Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt
Cations- Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ ,As 3+ A1 3+ Fe 3 + Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2 + , Mg 2 + , NH 4
+
Anions- CO 3
2- , S 2- , SO 3
2- , SO 4
2- , NO 2
- , NO 3
- , Cl - , Br - , I - , PO 4
3- , C 2 O 2-
4 , CH 3 COO -
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
G. Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, Chlorine (Periods 10)
bromine and iodine in an organic compound.
PROJECT (Periods 10)
Scientificinvestigationsinvolving laboratorytestingandcollecting informationfromothersources.
A Few suggested Projects
þ Checkingthebacterial contaminationindrinkingwater bytestingsulphideion.
þ Study of the methods of purification of water.
þ Testing thehardness,presenceof iron,fluoride,chlorideetc. dependingupontheregional
variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presences of these ions above
permissiblelimit(ifany).
þ Investigationof thefoamingcapacityof differentwashingsoapsand theeffectofaddition
of sodium carbonate on them.
þ Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.
þ Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
þ Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
þ Analysis offruitandvegetable juicesfortheiracidity.
Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 period of work, can be chosen with
the approval of the teacher.
 
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