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Sunday, June 6, 2010

APPLIED CHEMISTRY

APPLIED CHEMISTRY-I
L T P
4 - 2
RATIONALE
The role of chemistry and chemical products in every branch of engineering is expanding greatly. Now a days various products of chemical industries are playing important role in the field of engineering with increasing number of such products each successive years. The strength of materials, the chemical composition of substances, their behavior when subjected to different treatment and environment, and the laws of heat and dynamic energy have entered in almost every activity of modern life. Chemistry is considered as one of the core subjects for diploma students in engineering and technology for developing in them scientific temper and appreciation of chemical properties of materials, which they have to handle in their professional career. Effort should be made to teach this subject through demonstration and with the active involvement of students.

DETAILED CONTENTS
1. Basic concepts of Chemistry (10 hrs)
1.1 Units and Dimensions, derived units (with special reference to pressure, volume, temperature, density, specific gravity, surface tension, viscosity and conductivity)
1.2 Matter, element, compound and mixtures, atom, molecule, ion, symbols and formulae (recapitulation only)
1.3 Atomic mass (A), molar mass, mole concept, molar volume of gases
1.4 Solution, strength of solutions in grams per liter, molarity (M), molality (m), mass fraction and mole fraction
1.5 Chemical equations, thermo-chemical equations, balancing of chemical equations
1.6 Numerical problems based on mole concept.

2. Atomic structure and Chemical Bonding (10 hrs)
2.1 Fundamental particles i.e. electron, proton and neutron (their masses and charges)
2.2 Postulates of Bohr model of atom, success and failures of Bohr model of atom
2.3 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
2.4 Elementary idea of modern concept of atom, quantum numbers (significance only), definition of shells, sub shells and orbitals, shapes of s & p orbitals only. Electronic configuration of elements (atomic number 1 to 30 only) on the basis of Aufbau principle, Pauli’s principle and Hund’s rule
2.5 Modern periodic law, introduction of periodic table, periods and groups,
2.6 Division of the periodic table into s, p, d, and f blocks (details excluded)
2.7 Chemical bond and cause of bonding
2.8 Ionic bond, covalent bond, orbital concept of covalent bonding, valence bond theory, sigma (σ) and pi (π) bonds.
2.9 Metallic bonding (electron sea model)
2.10 Coordinate bond with examples of ozone, ammonium chloride, H3N-BF3 complex

3. Water (12 hrs)
3.1 Sources of water
3.2 Hard water, soft water, types of hardness, action of soap on hard water
3.3 Degree of hardness in terms of calcium carbonate, Units of hardness in Clark degree, French degree and ppm
3.4 Estimation of hardness by EDTA method,
3.5 Disadvantages of hard water in domestic and industrial uses
3.6 Boiler water: causes and prevention of scale and sludge formation, corrosion, priming & foaming and caustic embitterment
3.7 Softening of hard water by premutit and ion exchange processes
3.8 Qualities of drinking water and purification of available water for drinking purposes
3.9 Chemical analysis: Estimation of alkalinity, estimation of total dissolved solids (TDS), free chlorine, chloride, and dissolved oxygen
3.10 Numerical problems

4. Equilibrium, Acids and Bases. (12 hrs)
4.1 Equilibrium state, equilibrium constant and statement of Le-chatelier’s principle with illustration
4.2 Ionization of electrolyte in aqueous solution, ionic equilibrium, degree of ionization, self-ionization of water and ionic product of water (Kw)
4.3 Concept of pH and pH scale
4.4 Arrhenius concept of acids/bases; strong acids/bases, weak acids/bases, dissociation constants of acids/bases. Neutralization, acid base titration, choice of indicators for acid base titration
4.5 Hydrolysis of salts, buffer solutions (acidic and basic), buffer action of a buffer solution, applications of buffer solution
4.6 Simple numerical problems

5. Electrochemistry. (12 hrs)
5.1 Electronic concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions
5.2 Electrolytes and non electrolytes
5.3 Electrolysis, Faradays laws of electrolysis
5.4 Applications of electrolysis in electrometallurgy, electro-refining and electroplating
5.5 Galvanic cells (elementary idea) brief description of Daniel cell, Ni-Cd cell, dry cell and lithium iodide cell
5.6 Lead storage batteries and maintenance free batteries
5.7 Simple numerical problems related to Faraday’s laws

6. Organic Chemistry.
6.1 Tetra covalency of carbon, catenation (definition only)
6.2 Structural and condensed formulae of organic compounds
6.3 Homologous series, functional groups and following organic families:
(a) alkanes (b) alkenes (c) alkynes (d) alcohols (e) ethio-alcohals (f) ethers (g) aldehydes and ketones (h) Carboxylic acids (i) esters (j) amides (k) amines thio-alcohols (l) cyanides (m) ethers (with structure and IUPAC names of first two members only)

LIST OF PRACTICALS
1. Introduction to volumetric analysis, apparatus used and molarity based calculations
2. To determine strength of given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating against standard solution of oxalic acid using phenolphthalein indicator.
3. To determine strength of given solution of sulphuric acid by titrating against standard solution of sodium carbonate using methyl orange indicator (or by conductometrically).
4. To analyse commercial samples of antaacids by determining the amount of HCl they can neutralize.
5. Estimation of hardness of water by EDTA method.
6. Estimation of total alkalinity in the given sample of water by titrating against standard solution of sulfuric acid.
7. Determination of the dosage of bleaching powder required for sterilization or disinfection of different samples of water, using standard sodium thiosulfate solution
8. Estimation of chloride ions in the given sample of water by titrating against standard solution of silver nitrate.
9. To determine %age purity of ferrous sulphate in given solution of known strength using potassium permanganate solution.
10. To distinguish between aldehyde and ketone by Tollen’s reagent (benzaldehyde and acetone may be used)
11. To verify the first law of electrolysis. (Electrolysis of copper sulphate solution using copper electrode).
12. To prepare iodoform from ethanol or acetone
13. To prepare the Mohr’s salt from ferrous sulphate and ammonium sulphate.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS
1. Chemistry in Engineering by J.C. Kuricose And J. Rajaram, Tata McGraw Hill, Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi.
2. Engineering Chemistry byt P.C.Jain and Monika Jain, Dhanapat Rai Publishing Company New Delhi.
3. Engineering Chemistry by Shashi Chawla.
4. Progressive Applied Chemistry – I by Dr. G.H. Hugar Eagle Prakashan Jalandhar

SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS
Topic No. Time Allotted (Hrs) Marks Allotted (%)
1 10 15
2 10 15
3 12 20
4 12 20
5 12 20
6 08 10
TOTAL 64 100

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