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Fundaments rights: There are six fundaments rights.
1. Right to equality before law 2. Right to freedom 3. Right to freedom of religion 4. Right against exploitation 5. Right to constitution remedies 6.Culture and educational right
Right to property contained in fundamental right has been repealed by constitution by 44th amendment in
Fundamental duties: 10 fundamental duties have been taken in constitution with the 42nd amendment act. In 1976.
President Qualification: 1. Must be citizen of India 2. Must have completed the age of 35. 3. Must be qualified for election as a member of Lok-Sabha. 4. Must not hold any office of profit under the Govt. of India or Govt. of any state or under any local authority
An elected member of both houses of Parliament elects the President of India indirectly & elected member of legislature assembly of state in accordance of system proportion represent by mean of single Tran sable Vote.
Salary: Salary is Rs.50, 000 month & others allowance.
Time Period: Office hold for five years.
Powers: Chief Justice of India makes him to take the Oath of secrecy. If he is the resign, he must handover his resignation to vice president. He is the supreme commander of defence forces. He can declare war and make peace. He appoints governors, chief Justice, and judges of Supreme Court, Judges of High Court. Any bill passed by parliament gets OK. He can nominate 12 members to the Rajya-Sabha. He can nominated 2 Anglo Indian member to Lok-Sabha & order of fresh election. He can grant, pardon, & remit punishment. He can suspend entire constitution or some article under emergency conditions.
Rajya-Sabha: It is permanent body of terms 6 years. It should not have more than 250 members. 238 elected, 12 nominated by president, every member must be Indian. He should not below the age 30. 1/3 of the members retired every second year. The vice president is chairman of Rajya-Sabha. MLA of state assembly Elect its members.
Lok-Sabha: It should not have more than 550 members. The member must be elected directly by the peoples. Each member must be citizen of India. He must not below 25 years of age. Each member must represent 5 Lac Citizen. The members of the house elect the speaker & deputy speaker from among them self. The speaker Act. As Chair Man.
Supreme court: It is the highest court of. It should not have more than 25 judges & single Chief Justice. Judge holds office for 65 years. The president appoints the Judges with the consolation of Chief Justice. After retirement no Judge can practice in any court.
Salaries of Some important persons:
Vice President - 40,000
Governor - 36,000
Chief Justice of Supreme Court - 33,000
Other Judges of Supreme Court - 30,000
Chief Justice of High Court - 30,000
Other Judges of High Court - 26,000
M.P of states - 12,000
Union Service Public Commission: The C.M and other member of the union service public commission are appointed by the president they hold the office for the term of six years from the date of appointment or the age of 65 years. The main function of the commission is to conduct Exams. & Hold interviews for the making appointments for various services of union.
Attorney General of India: The President of India appoints a person who is qualified for the Judge court to be the attorney general of India for expert legal advice to the government of India. He is to perform also other duties of legal character and such other function as may be assigned to him by the president under the constitution
Comptroller Auditor General of India: The president appoints him to perform all duties and exercise power in constitution with the accounts with the union and the state. His main duty to keep a vigilant watch on the fiancés of union and the states to submit repots to the president or governor and to ensure that money is voted by the legislature are spent under appropriate heads and they are not exceeding and varied
State Legislature: Every state has a Legislature. Some states have two houses. One is Legislatures assembly is called Vidhan-Sabha and the other is called legislature Council is called Vidhan-Parishad.
Note: Two Houses are in 5 states 1. Maharashtra 2. Karnataka 3. Bihar 4. U.P 5. J & K
Vidhan-Sabha: One member represent 75,000 people in Legislature
- Maximum Number of members - 500
- Minimum Numbers of members - 60
Vidhan-Parishad: Maximum Strength of this council must not be more than 1\3 of total no. Of members of legislature assembly. But is not be less than 40.
Emergency; there are 3 types of emergencies.1. National emergency; [Art 352] provides for emergency due to war internal or armed rebellion. During the national emergency fundamental rights under Art 99 can be suspended. Right to move the court can also be suspended. But Art 21 protection of life and liberty can’t be suspended. It has been declared thrice.
Presidential rules: [Art 356] provider for president’s rules due to failure of the constitution machinery in the state. This is also known as state emergency. It has been declared 100 or more times.
Financial emergency: [Art 360] Provides for financial emergency if there is threat to the financial stability or credit of India. It has been declared never.
Official languages: 18 languages in the 8th schedule. They include Nepali, Manipuri, Conconi, which was added by the 70th amendments the official language of Supreme Court is English. Constitution provides that Hindi in Devnagri. Script shall be the official language of union
Amendments: [Art368] provides for amending the constitution .42nd amendment  declare that there is no limit on the power of parliament. To amend any provision of the constitution no court can question the validity of any such amendment 42nd amendment is also called mini constitution. It adds the words (1) socialism, (2) secularism, (3) integrity .it is also introduce fundamental duties directive principal of state policy is in the amendment
1st amendment: 1951
44th amendment: 1978 it omitted right is property as a fundamental right made it only a legal right.
61st amendment: [art 326] amendment to reduce the voting age form 21st to 18th years.
65th amendment:  it establishes a national commission for SC/ST.
73rd amendment:  provides constitution status to Panchayati-Raj added the 11th schedule.
74th amendment:  provide constitution status to municipal govt. and added the 12th schedule.
90th amendment:  limit of 50%job reservation for SC/ST /BC in the union govt. is removed .
93rd amendment:  right of literacy is fundamental right.
Special status to J and K: [art 370] of the constitution deals with J and K the status of J and K enjoy a special status with in the Indian union. It is the only state possessing a separate constitution.
Election commission: art 324 of constitution provides for as election commission, which shall consist of a chief election commission and such other E.C as a president, may fix from time to time.
Function of commission: 1. Preparing for electoral roles. 2. Super vision, direction control of election to parliament & state legislature. 3. Reorganization of political parties & allotment of symbols to them. 4. Conducting election to office of the president & the vise president. 5. The chief election commission is independent of executive control of service are provided in the constitution.
Review of the Constitution: After 50 years in the working of constitution of Government of India set up the commission on 23rd Feb. 2000. Under the chairmanship of chief justice M. N. Venkatachliah. The commission submit his report on 31st March 2002
Quorum: It is a minimum numbers of members of a legislature that must be present to make the proceeding valid. This is equal to 1/10 of the total number of members.
Question House: The first house of every sitting in the Lok-Sabha & Rajya-Sabha is meant for Question. This question relates to the matter of administration, problem of country & the matter is bought to the notice to the ministers.
Zero Hour: The Zero hour falls after the question hour in the house. The hour leads loss of time of parliament because of subjective matter is raised without prior permission.
Republic :It is a republican country because the head of the country (President) is also elected.
§ None can punish twice for same offence under art 2(2)
§ No one will be compelled to be witness against himself art20 (3)
§ Directive principles are inspired by the constitution of Ireland.
§ A money bill shall are introduced only in the house of people (Lok-Sabha).
§ All disputes relating to the electing of president & vice president decided by Supreme Court.
§ Vice president addresses his resignation to president.
§ The council of ministers collectively responsible to the Lok-Sabha.
§ Advocate the governor appoints general.
§ A Member of Parliament or state legislature cannot be arrested civil action within a period of 40 days before & after the session.
§ By convention deputy speaker is a member of party in opposition.
§ Whether a bill a money bill or not is decided by speaker of Lok-Sabha.
§ Who administer oath of office to the governor- chief justice of state high court
§ President through Lt. Governor administrates U.T.
§ 1/3seates are reserved in all Panchayat at all level for woman.
§ No. of article at the time of constitution is 398,$10schedule.
§ At present No. Of art.- 444.
National law: Is the law administrated by military authority
Preamble: Sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic.
Liberty – Of thought, expression, faith, belief, worship, equality of status of opportunity and to promote among all.
Fraternity: Assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and the integrity of the nation.
Books and their authors:
1. Anand math – Bankim Chander Chatterji
3. Ainiakbari, akbarnamah-Abul fazal
4. Bhagwat geeta, Mahabhart-Rishi Ved Vayas
5. Discovery of India - Jawaharlal Nehru
6. Geetanjali- Dr. Rabindra Nath Tagore
7. The Guide- R.K.Narayan
8. The Hindu Views of life – Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
9. India Wins Freedom – Maulana Abdul Kalam
10. Hamlet – Shakespeare
11. Kadambari – Banabhatta
12. Mein Kamph – Adolf Hitler
13. Meghdoot, Shakuntla – Kalidas
14. The Experiment With Truth – Gandhi
15. Wealth of Nation – Adam Smith (Father of Economics)
Popular Names: -
Grand Old Man of India – Dada Bhai Naro Ji
Iron Man of India – Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel
Guru Ji – M.S. Golwalker
Guru Dev – Rabindra Nath Tagore
Desh Bandhu – C. R. Das
Lok Maneya – Bal Gangadhar Tilk
Bapu – Mahatma Gandhi
Chacha Ji – Jawahar Lal Nehru
Neta Ji – Subhash Chander Boss
10.Lion of Punjab – Lala Laj Patrai
11.Man of Blood & Iron – Prince Bishumark
12. Father of English Poetry – Geoffery Chaucer
13. Father of Computer – Charles Babbage
14. Nightingale of India – Sarojini Naidu
15. Lal, Bal, Pal, - Lala Laj Patrai, Bal Gangadhar Tilk, Vipin
Geographical Sir Names: -
City of Seven Hills – Roam
Blue Mountain – Nilgiri Hills
City of Palaces – Kolkata
Pink City – Jaipur
China’s Sorrow – Hwang Ho
Cock Pit of Europe – Belgium
Dark Continent – Africa
Gift of Nile – Egypt
Gate Way of India – Mumbai
10.Holly Land – Jerusalem
11.Land of midnight sun – Norway
12. Land of Thousands Lakes – Fin Land
13.Land of elephants – Siam (Thai Land)
14. Playground of Europe – Switzerland
15. Roof of the World – Pamirs in Central Asia
16. Sick man of Europe – Turkey
Barometer Atmospheric pressure
anemometer Wind wage
Rain gauge Rain
Sphygmomanometer Blood pressure
10. Screw Gauge Thickness
11.Seismograph Earth Quakes
12. Taseometer Strain
Mass Kilo Gram
Discoveries of Important Vaccinations: -
Small Pox – Edward Jenner (1786)
Cholera – Lewis Pasture (1880)
Rabbis – Lewis Pasture (1860)
Diphtheria – Emil Adolf Von (1891)
Tetanus – Emil Adolf Von (1891)
T.B. – Leon Calmette (1922)
Polio – John – E – Salk (1954)
Missile & Ranges: -
Agni – (1500-2000 Km.)
New Agni – (3000 Km.)
Prithvi – (150 – 200 Km.)
Akash – (25 Km.)
Nag – (4 Km.)
Trishul – (500 Km.)
There are six kind of Noble prizes :-
Physics 2. Peace 3. Literature
4. Chemistry 5. Medicine 6. Economics
Country Symbol: -
1.India – Royal Bengal Tiger
Canada – Maple Leaf
USA – Bald Eagle
Colombia – Orchid
Spain – Red Carnation
Russia – Blown Bear
Japan – Cherry Blossom
Den Mark – Beech Tree
South Africa – Blue Crane
10.Greece – Olive Branch
11.China – Dragon
12.Argentina – Leiko (Flower)
13.Bugaria – Lion
14.England – Rose
15.Wales – Leek, Dragon
16.Scotland – Thistle
17.Turky – Tulip
18.Australia – Golden Wattle Flower
19.Irland – Shamrock
About India: -
Area – 3287263 Square. Km.
Union Territory – 7
Largest State in Population – U.P
Highest Density in Population – West Bengal
Lowest Per Capita Income – Bihar
Highest Per Capita Income – Punjab
Largest State in Area – Rajasthan
First State to Achieve total Literacy – Kerla
Minimum Population – Sikkim
10.Frist state to achieve nearly 100% rural electricity – Haryana
11.Minimum Area of State – Goa
12.Recoginse Languages – 22
13.People Below Poverty Line – 19%
14.Major Export – Tea
15.Modern Tank – Arjuna
16.Hieghest Population City – Mumbai