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Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Computer Question

41. Q. What is a faster way to do the same command?
mv fileO.txt newdir
mv filel.txt newdir
mv file2.txt newdir
mv file3.txt newdir
A. A shortcut method would be: mv file?.txt newdir

42. Q. List two ways to create a new file:
a. Copy a file to make a new file.
b. Use the output operator e.g. ls -l > newfile.txt

43. Q. What is the difference between > and >> operators?
A. The operator > either overwrites the existing file (WITHOUT WARNING) or creates a new file.
The operator >> either adds the new contents to the end of an existing file or creates a new file.

44. Write the command to do the following:
44.1 Redirect the output from the directory listing to a printer.
44.2 Add the file efg.txt to the end of the file abc.txt.
44.3 The file testdata feeds information into the file called program
44.4 Observe the contents of the file called xyz.txt using MORE.
44.5 Observe a directory listing that is four screens long.
44.1 ls > lpr
44.2 cat efg.txt >> abc.txt
44.3 program < testdata
44.4 more < xyz.txt
44.5 ls > dirsave | more

45. Q. How do you estimate file space usage
A. Use du command (Summarize disk usage of each FILE, recursively for
directories.) Good to use arguments du -hs
(-h, --human-readable print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
(-s, --summarize display only a total for each argument)

46. Q. How can you see all mounted drives?
A. mount -l

47. Q. How can you find a path to the file in the system?
A. locate file_name (locate - list files in databases that match a pattern)

48. Q. What Linux HotKeys do you know?
A. Ctrl-Alt-F1 Exit to command prompt
Ctrl-Alt-F7 or F8 Takes you back to KDE desktop from command prompt
Crtl-Alt-Backspace Restart XWindows
Ctrl-Alt-D Show desktop

49. Q. What can you tell about the tar Command?
A. The tar program is an immensely useful archiving utility. It can combine
an entire directory tree into one large file suitable for transferring or

50. Q. What types of files you know?
A. Files come in eight flavors:
Normal files
Hard links
Symbolic links
Named pipes
Character devices
Block devices

51. Q. How to copy files from on PC to another on the same network
A. Use the following command:scp yur_file you_login@your_IP
example: copy .conf file from your PC to alex computer-
scp /etc/X11/xorg.conf alex@

52. Q. Please describe information below:

-rw-rw-r-- 1 dotpc dotpc 102 Jul 18 2003 file.buf
drwxr-xr-x 9 dotpc dotpc 4096 Oct 21 09:34 bin
lrwxrwxrwx 1 dotpc dotpc 20 Mar 21 15:00 client -> client-2.9.5
drwxrwxr-x 11 dotpc dotpc 4096 Sep 2 2005 client-2.8.9
drwxrwxr-x 7 dotpc dotpc 4096 Dec 14 12:13 data
drwxr-xr-x 12 dotpc dotpc 4096 Oct 21 09:41 docs
drwxr-xr-x 5 dotpc dotpc 4096 Dec 7 14:22 etc
drwxr-xr-x 11 dotpc dotpc 4096 Mar 21 15:54 client-2.9.5
-rw-r--r-- 1 dotpc dotpc 644836 Mar 22 09:53 client-2.9.5.tar.gz

A. This is a result of command $ls -l
we have two files, 6 directories and one link to client-2.9.5 directory.
There is number of files in every directory, size and data of last change.

53. Q. If you would like to run two commands in sequence what operators you can use?

A. ; or && the difference is:
if you separate commands with ; second command will be run automatically.
if you separate commands with && second command will be run only in the case
the first was run successfully.

54. Q. How you will uncompress the file?
A. Use tar command (The GNU version of the tar archiving utility):
tar -zxvf file_name.tar.gz

55. Q.How do you execute a program or script, my_script in your current directoty?
A. ./my_script

56. Q.How to find current time configuration in the file my_new.cfg
A. grep time my_new.cfg
Grep searches the named input files (or standard input if
no files are named, or the file name - is given) for lines
containing a match to the given pattern.

Q. What does grep() stand for?
A. General Regular Expression Parser.

57. Q. What does the top command display?
A. Top provides an ongoing look at processor activity in real
time. It displays a listing of the most CPU-intensive
tasks on the system, and can provide an interactive inter¬
face for manipulating processes. (q is to quit)

58. Q. How can you find configuration on linux?
A. by using /sin/ifconfig
If no arguments are given, ifconfig displays the status of the cur-
rently active interfaces. If a single interface argument is given, it displays the status of the given interface only; if a single -a argu-
ment is given, it displays the status of all interfaces, even those
that are down. Otherwise, it configures an interface.

59. Q. How to find difference in two configuration files on the same server?
A. Use diff command that is compare files line by line
diff -u /usr/home/my_project1/etc/ABC.conf /usr/home/my_project2/etc/ABC.conf

60. Q. What is the best way to see the end of a logfile.log file?
A. Use tail command - output the last part of files
tail -n file_name ( the last N lines, instead of the last 10 as default)

61. Q. Please write a loop for removing all files in the current directory that contains a word 'log'
A. for i in *log*; do rm $i; done

62. Question: How to switch to a previously used directory?
Answer: cd -

21. Q. How to remove directory with files?
A. rm -rf directory_name

22. Q. What is the difference between internal and external commands?
A. Internal commands are stored in the; same level as the operating system while external
commands are stored on the hard disk among the other utility programs.

23. Q. List the three main parts of an operating system command:
A. The three main parts are the command, options and arguments.

24 Q. What is the difference between an argument and an option (or switch)?
A. An argument is what the command should act on: it could be a filename,
directory or name. An option is specified when you want to request additional
information over and above the basic information each command supplies.

25. Q. What is the purpose of online help?
A. Online help provides information on each operating system command, the
syntax, the options, the arguments with descriptive information.
26. Q. Name two forms of security.
A. Two forms of security are Passwords and File Security with permissions specified.

27. Q. What command do you type to find help about the command who?
A. $ man who

28. Q. What is the difference between home directory and working directory?
A. Home directory is the directory you begin at when you log into the
system. Working directory can be anywhere on the system and it is where you are currently

29. Q. Which directory is closer to the top of the file system tree, parent directory or current directory?
A. The parent directory is above the current directory, so it is closer to
the root or top of the
file system.

30. Q. Given the following pathname:
$ /business/acctg/payable/supplier/april
a) If you were in the directory called acctg, what would be the relative
pathname name for the file called april?
b) What would be the absolute pathname for april?
a) $ payable/supplier/april
b) $ /business/acctg/payable/supplier/april

31. Q. Suppose your directory had the following files:
help. 1 help.2 help.3 help.4 help.O1 help.O2
aid.O1 aid.O2 aid.O3 back. 1 back.2 back.3
a) What is the command to list all files ending in 2?
b) What is the command to list all files starting in aid?
c) What is the command to list all "help" files with one character extension?
a) ls *2
b) ls aid.*
c) ls help.?

32. Q. What are two subtle differences in using the more and the pg commands?
A. With the more command you display another screenful by pressing
the spacebar, with pg you press the return key.
The more command returns you automatically to the UNIX
shell when completed, while pg waits until you press return.

33. Q. When is it better to use the more command rather than cat command?
A. It is sometimes better to use the more command when you are viewing
a file that will display over one screen.

34. Q. What are two functions the move mv command can carry out?
A. The mv command moves files and can also be used to rename a file or directory.

35. Q. Name two methods you could use to rename a file.
A. Two methods that could be used:
a. use the mv command
b. copy the file and give it a new name and then remove the original file if no longer needed.

36. The soccer league consists of boy and girl teams. The boy file names begin
with B, the girl teams begin with G. All of these files are in one directory
called "soccer", which is your current directory:
Bteam.abc Bteam.OOl Bteam.OO2 Bteam.OO4
Gteam.win Gteam.OOl Gteam.OO2 Gteam.OO3
Write the commands to do the following:
a) rename the file Bteam.abc to Bteam.OO3.
b) erase the file Gteam. win after you have viewed the contents of the file
c) make a directory for the boy team files called "boys", and one for the girl team files
called" girls"
d) move all the boy teams into the "boys" directory
e) move all the girl teams into the "girls" directory
f) make a new file called Gteam.OO4 that is identical to Gteam.OOl
g) make a new file called Gteam.OO5 that is identical to Bteam.OO2
a) mv Bteam.abc Bteam.OO3.
b) cat Gteam.win -or- more Gteam.win
rm Gteam. win
c) mkdir boys
mkdir girls
d) mv Bteam* boys
e) mv Gteam* girls
f) cd girls
cp Gteam.OO1 Gteam.OO4
g) There are several ways to do this. Remember that we are currently in the directory
cp ../boys/Bteam.OO2 Gteam.OO5
cd ../boys
cp Bteam.OO2 ../girls/Gteam.OO5

37. Q. Draw a picture of the final directory structure for the "soccer"
directory, showing all the files and directories.

38. Q. What metacharacter is used to do the following:
1.1 Move up one level higher in the directory tree structure
1.2 Specify all the files ending in .txt
1.3 Specify one character
1.4 Redirect input from a file
1.5 Redirect the output and append it to a file
1. 1.1 double-dot or ..
1.2 asterisk or *
1.3 question or ?
1.4 double greater than sign: >>
1.5 the less than sign or <

39. Q. List all the files beginning with A
A. To list all the files beginning with A command: ls A*

40. Q. Which of the quoting or escape characters allows the dollar sign ($) to retain its special meaning?
A. The double quote (") allows the dollar sign ($) to retain its special meaning.
Both the backslash (\) and single quote (') would remove the special meaning of the dollar sign.
1. Q. How do you list files in a directory?
A. ls - list directory contents
ls l (-l use a long listing format)

2. Q. How do you list all files in a directory, including the hidden files?
A. ls -a (-a, do not hide entries starting with .)

3. Q. How do you find out all processes that are currently running?
A. ps -f (-f does full-format listing.)

4. Q. How do you find out the processes that are currently running or a particular user?
A. ps -au Myname (-u by effective user ID (supports names)) (a - all users)

5. Q. How do you kill a process?
A. kill -9 8 (process_id 8) or kill -9 %7 (job number 7)
kill -9 -1 (Kill all processes you can kill.)
killall - kill processes by name most (useful - killall java)

6. Q. What would you use to view contents of the file?
A. less filename
cat filename
pg filename
pr filename
more filename
most useful is command: tail file_name - you can see the end of the log file.

7. Q. What would you use to edit contents of the file?
A. vi screen editor or jedit, nedit or ex line editor

8. Q. What would you use to view contents of a large error log file?
A. tail -10 file_name ( last 10 rows)

9. Q. How do you log in to a remote Unix box?
A. Using telnet server_name or ssh -l ( ssh - OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program))

10.Q. How do you get help on a UNIX terminal?
A. man command_name
info command_name (more information)

11.Q. How do you list contents of a directory including all of its
subdirectories, providing full details and sorted by modification time?
A. ls -lac
-a all entries
-c by time

12.Q. How do you create a symbolic link to a file (give some reasons of doing so)?
A. ln /../file1 Link_name
Links create pointers to the actual files, without duplicating the contents of
the files. That is, a link is a way of providing another name to the same file.
There are two types of links to a file:Hard link, Symbolic (or soft) link;

13.Q. What is a filesystem?
A. Sum of all directories called file system.
A file system is the primary means of file storage in UNIX.
File systems are made of inodes and superblocks.

14.Q. How do you get its usage (a filesystem)?
A. By storing and manipulate files.

15.Q. How do you check the sizes of all users home directories (one command)?
A. du -s

The du command summarizes disk usage by directory. It recurses through all subdirectories and shows disk usage by each subdirectory with a final total at the end.

Q. in current directory
A. ls -ps (p- directory; s - size)

16.Q. How do you check for processes started by user 'pat'?

A. ps -fu pat (-f -full_format u -user_name )

17.Q. How do you start a job on background?

A. bg %4 (job 4)

18 Q. What utility would you use to replace a string '2001' for '2002' in a text file?

A. Grep, Kde( works on Linux and Unix)

19. Q. What utility would you use to cut off the first column in a text file?
A. awk, kde

20. Q. How to copy file into directory?
A. cp /tmp/file_name . (dot mean in the current directory)
Describe the differences between XML and HTML.

It's amazing how many developers claim to be proficient programming with XML, yet do not understand the basic differences between XML and HTML. Anyone with a fundamental grasp of XML should be able describe some of the main differences outlined in the table below.

Differences Between XML and HTML

XML: User definable tags
HTML: Defined set of tags designed for web display

XML: Content driven
HTML: Format driven

XML: End tags required for well formed documents
HTML: End tags not required

XML: Quotes required around attributes values
HTML: Quotes not required

XML: Slash required in empty tags
HTML: Slash not required

Describe the role that XSL can play when dynamically generating HTML pages from a relational database.

Even if candidates have never participated in a project involving this type of architecture, they should recognize it as one of the common uses of XML. Querying a database and then formatting the result set so that it can be validated as an XML document allows developers to translate the data into an HTML table using XSLT rules. Consequently, the format of the resulting HTML table can be modified without changing the database query or application code since the document rendering logic is isolated to the XSLT rules.

Give a few examples of types of applications that can benefit from using XML.

There are literally thousands of applications that can benefit from XML technologies. The point of this question is not to have the candidate rattle off a laundry list of projects that they have worked on, but, rather, to allow the candidate to explain the rationale for choosing XML by citing a few real world examples. For instance, one appropriate answer is that XML allows content management systems to store documents independently of their format, which thereby reduces data redundancy. Another answer relates to B2B exchanges or supply chain management systems. In these instances, XML provides a mechanism for multiple companies to exchange data according to an agreed upon set of rules. A third common response involves wireless applications that require WML to render data on hand held devices.

What is DOM and how does it relate to XML?

The Document Object Model (DOM) is an interface specification maintained by the W3C DOM Workgroup that defines an application independent mechanism to access, parse, or update XML data. In simple terms it is a hierarchical model that allows developers to manipulate XML documents easily Any developer that has worked extensively with XML should be able to discuss the concept and use of DOM objects freely. Additionally, it is not unreasonable to expect advanced candidates to thoroughly understand its internal workings and be able to explain how DOM differs from an event-based interface like SAX.

What is SOAP and how does it relate to XML?

The Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) uses XML to define a protocol for the exchange of information in distributed computing environments. SOAP consists of three components: an envelope, a set of encoding rules, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls. Unless experience with SOAP is a direct requirement for the open position, knowing the specifics of the protocol, or how it can be used in conjunction with HTTP, is not as important as identifying it as a natural application of XML.

Can you walk us through the steps necessary to parse XML documents?

Superficially, this is a fairly basic question. However, the point is not to determine whether candidates understand the concept of a parser but rather have them walk through the process of parsing XML documents step-by-step. Determining whether a non-validating or validating parser is needed, choosing the appropriate parser, and handling errors are all important aspects to this process that should be included in the candidate's response.

Give some examples of XML DTDs or schemas that you have worked with.

Although XML does not require data to be validated against a DTD, many of the benefits of using the technology are derived from being able to validate XML documents against business or technical architecture rules. Polling for the list of DTDs that developers have worked with provides insight to their general exposure to the technology. The ideal candidate will have knowledge of several of the commonly used DTDs such as FpML, DocBook, HRML, and RDF, as well as experience designing a custom DTD for a particular project where no standard existed.

Using XSLT, how would you extract a specific attribute from an element in an XML document?
xsl:template to match the appropriate XML element, xsl:value-of to select the attribute value, and the optional xsl:apply-templates to continue processing the document.

Extract Attributes from XML Data
Example 1.

Attribute Value:

When constructing an XML DTD, how do you create an external entity reference in an attribute value?

Every interview session should have at least one trick question. Although possible when using SGML, XML DTDs don't support defining external entity references in attribute values. It's more important for the candidate to respond to this question in a logical way than than the candidate know the somewhat obscure answer.

How would you build a search engine for large volumes of XML data?

The way candidates answer this question may provide insight into their view of XML data. For those who view XML primarily as a way to denote structure for text files, a common answer is to build a full-text search and handle the data similarly to the way Internet portals handle HTML pages. Others consider XML as a standard way of transferring structured data between disparate systems. These candidates often describe some scheme of importing XML into a relational or object database and relying on the database's engine for searching. Lastly, candidates that have worked with vendors specializing in this area often say that the best way the handle this situation is to use a third party software package optimized for XML data.
What is the maximum total number of nodes in a tree that has N levels? Note that the root is level (zero)

Explain binary searching, Fibinocci search.

Explain quick sort and merge sort algorithms and derive the time-constraint relation for these. MNB

What do you mean by Base case, Recursive case, Binding Time, Run-Time Stack and Tail Recursion?

What data structure would you mostly likely see in a non recursive implementation of a recursive algorithm?

Write the programs for Linked List (Insertion and Deletion) operations

How would you sort a linked list?

Explain about the types of linked lists

Write programs for Bubble Sort, Quick sort

Write a Binary Search program

Stack can be described as a pointer. Explain.

How is it possible to insert different type of elements in stack?

Convert the following infix expression to post fix notation ((a+2)*(b+4)) -1

Evaluate the following prefix expression " ++ 26 + - 1324"

What does abstract data type means?
Which one is faster? A binary search of an orderd set of elements in an array or a sequential search of the elements.

Parenthesis are never needed in prefix or postfix expressions. Why?

How will inorder, preorder and postorder traversals print the elements of a tree?

In which data structure, elements can be added or removed at either end, but not in the middle?

How can you correct these errors?

What do you mean by: Syntax Error, Logical Error, Runtime Error?

Which data structure is needed to convert infix notations to post fix notations?

What is the average number of comparisons in a sequential search?

Which sort show the best average behavior?

What is the average number of comparisons needed in a sequential search to determine the position of an element in an array of 100 elements, if the elements are ordered
from largest to smallest?

The element being searched for is not found in an array of 100 elements. What is the average number of comparisons needed in a sequential search to determine that the element is not there, if the elements are completely unordered?

When will you sort an array of pointers to list elements, rather than sorting the elements themselves?

A list is ordered from smaller to largest when a sort is called. Which sort would take the shortest time to execute?

A list is ordered from smaller to largest when a sort is called. Which sort would take the longest time to execute?

How many different binary trees and binary search trees can be made from three nodes that contain the key values 1, 2 & 3?

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